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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland

Annual, perennial herb [to shrub, soft-wooded tree], hairs stinging and not [glabrous]; monoecious or dioecious; wind-pollinated. Leaf: alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled, blade often with translucent, raised dots due to crystals in epidermal cells. Inflorescence: axillary, 1-flowered or head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Flower: generally unisexual, small, ± green; sepals generally 4–5, free to fused; petals 0. Staminate flower: stamens generally 4–5, opposite sepals, incurved in bud, reflexing suddenly when flower opens. Pistillate flower: ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, stigma 1, generally hair-tufted. Fruit: generally achene.
50 genera, 700 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Boehmeria, ramie; Pilea, clearweed). [Boufford 1997 FNANM 3:400–413] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Miller 1971 J Arnold Arbor 52:40–68]

Key to Urticaceae

Hairs sparse to dense, stinging 0. Stem: branches from base, decumbent to erect, generally herbaceous. Leaf: alternate, blade 1–9 cm, lanceolate to round, entire; stipules 0; crystals round. Inflorescence: head-, spike-, or panicle-like, generally few-flowered; flowers subtended by involucre of 1–3 lance-linear bracts. Flower: sepals 4, fused below. Staminate flower: stamens 4. Fruit: ovoid, shiny.
20–30 species: worldwide temperate, subtropics. (Latin: wall, from habitat of some)
Unabridged references: [Hinton 1969 Sida 3:293–297]
Unabridged note: Parietaria floridana Nutt. collected as nursery weed in South Coast.

Key to Parietaria

P. pensylvanica Willd.
Annual < 6 dm, decumbent to erect. Leaf: blade 10–90 mm, on older stems lanceolate to linear, base long-tapered, tip generally acuminate to long-tapered, lowest veins from midrib well above blade base. Flower: calyx lobes ± erect, 1.5–2 mm, acute, dark red-brown. Fruit: hidden between calyx lobes or not, 0.9–1.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm wide, ovate, ± (red-) brown, tip obtuse.
2n=16. Desert scrub, coastal scrub, chaparral, oak forest, riparian woodland; 200–730 m. Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, s Sierra Nevada, San Jacinto Mountains; to southern Canada, eastern United States, Mexico. Possibly alien; California collections historic, widely scattered. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Parietaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Parietaria pensylvanica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.