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APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

OSMORHIZA SWEET-CICELY
Perennial herb, ± glabrous to hairy; roots thick, clustered, licorice-scented. Stem: branched, leafy. Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, 2-pinnate or ternate-pinnate or 2–3-ternate, leaflets lanceolate to round. Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts 0; bractlets 0–several, conspicuous; rays, pedicels few, spreading-ascending to spreading. Flower: calyx lobes 0; petals obovate, white, purple, or ± green-yellow (± green-white), tips narrowed; disk occasionally present. Fruit: linear to oblong, cylindric to club-shaped, ± compressed side-to-side, bristly to glabrous; base obtuse or long-tapered into tail, tip tapered into beak or obtuse; ribs thread-like; oil tubes obscure; fruit axis divided in distal 1/2. Seed: face concave or grooved.
± 10 species: America, eastern and southern Asia. (Greek: sweet root) [Lowry & Jones 1985 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 71:1128–1171]

Key to Osmorhiza

O. occidentalis (Nutt.) Torr.
NATIVE
Plant 4–12 dm, glabrous to sparsely fine-hairy. Leaf: petiole 5–25 cm; blade 1–2 dm, oblong to ovate, 2-pinnate, leaflets 2–10 cm, lance-oblong to ovate, serrate and generally irregularly cut or lobed. Inflorescence: peduncle 6–20 cm; bractlets generally 0; rays 5–12, generally 3–8 cm, ascending to spreading-ascending; pedicels 3–8 mm. Flower: corolla yellow; styles 0.8–1.4 mm; disk conspicuous. Fruit: 12–22 mm, linear-fusiform, not long-tapered at base; tail 0; tip narrowed proximal to beak; ribs (and intervals) glabrous.
2n=22. Conifer forest, oak woodland; 200–3200 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada; to western Canada, Colorado. May–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Osmorhiza purpurea

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Osmorhiza, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35571, accessed on Sep 30 2014

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click for enlargement Osmorhiza occidentalis
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2003 Steve Matson

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Osmorhiza occidentalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.