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Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Apiaceae
Perennial herb, ± glabrous to hairy; roots thick, clustered, licorice-scented. Stem: branched, leafy. Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, 2-pinnate or ternate-pinnate or 2–3-ternate, leaflets lanceolate to round. Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts 0; bractlets 0–several, conspicuous; rays, pedicels few, spreading-ascending to spreading. Flower: calyx lobes 0; petals obovate, white, purple, or ± green-yellow (± green-white), tips narrowed; disk occasionally present. Fruit: linear to oblong, cylindric to club-shaped, ± compressed side-to-side, bristly to glabrous; base obtuse or long-tapered into tail, tip tapered into beak or obtuse; ribs thread-like; oil tubes obscure; fruit axis divided in distal 1/2. Seed: face concave or grooved.Key to Osmorhiza
± 10 species: America, eastern and southern Asia. (Greek: sweet root) [Lowry & Jones 1985 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 71:1128–1171]
Plant 3–12 dm, ± glabrous to finely hairy. Leaf: petiole 5–16 cm; blade 4–20 cm wide, widely ovate to obovate, 2-ternate, leaflets 2–8 cm, widely lanceolate to round, serrate to irregularly cut or lobed. Inflorescence: peduncle 5–25 cm; bractlets generally 0; rays 3–8, 2–12 cm, spreading-ascending; pedicels 4–20 mm. Flower: corolla white; styles generally < 1 mm; ovary tip projection conic; disk 0. Fruit: 12–25 mm, linear-fusiform or -oblong; tail 2–8.5 mm; beak slender; ribs bristly.
2n=22. Conifer forest, woodland, disturbed areas; < 2800 m. California Floristic Province, Modoc Plateau; to Alaska, Alberta, Colorado; also central and eastern North America, southern South America. [Osmorhiza chilensis Hook. & Arn.] Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Osmorhiza
Next taxon: Osmorhiza brachypoda
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 6 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Osmorhiza, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35560, accessed on Mar 6 2014
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