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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally 1, erect. Leaf: cauline; ligule membranous; blade flat to folded. Inflorescence: panicle-like. Spikelet: laterally compressed; glumes 2, reduced to 2-lobed cup at pedicel tip; florets 3, lower 2 reduced to glume-like sterile lemmas, uppermost bisexual; fertile lemma keeled, glabrous or stiff-hairy, tip short-beaked, awned or not; palea keeled, beaked, = lemma; stamens 6.
± 20 species: tropics worldwide. (Greek: rice) There are historical collections of red rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff. <Noxious weed>, from Great Central Valley, but no evidence of its being naturalized.
Unabridged references: [Barkworth & Terrell 2007 FNANM 24:37–41]
Annual (perennial herb). Stem: 4–15(20) dm. Leaf: sheath generally glabrous; ligule 4–10 mm, acute; blade 15–35 cm, 3–11 mm wide, glabrous to minutely scabrous. Inflorescence: 10–50 cm; branches capillary, drooping. Spikelet: elliptic, 6–11 mm, 2–4 mm wide; glumes vestigial; sterile lemmas 1.5–3(10) mm, awns 0; fertile lemma 6–11 mm, 2–3 mm wide, 3-veined; fertile palea 1–2 mm wide.
2n=24. Wet sites; < 100 m. Great Central Valley; Texas to southeastern United States, Mediterranean; native to southeastern Asia. Perhaps our most important food plant, it is also used to feed cattle, as a starch source, and is fermented to make beer and sake. Sep–Nov [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Historical waif in Santa Barbara Co., collected once in 1962, and Imperial Co., collected once in 1954.
Previous taxon: Oryza
Next taxon: Panicum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 11 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Oryza, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35533, accessed on Mar 11 2014
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