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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

ORTHOCARPUS

Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green. Leaf: alternate, sessile, entire to 3-lobed. Inflorescence: spike; bracts generally distinct from leaves, 1 per flower, entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, deepest sinus adaxial; corolla club-shaped, upper lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downward forming a hood enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, ± 3-pouched, (0)3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style, stigma slender. Fruit: generally ± notched. Seed: generally 8–15, often ± curved, ± keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting.
9 species: western North America. (Greek: straight fruit) [Chuang & Heckard 1992 Syst Bot 17:560–582] Close to Cordylanthus; other species formerly placed here are Castilleja (owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).

Key to Orthocarpus

O. pachystachyus A. Gray SHASTA ORTHOCARPUS
NATIVE
Plant 10–20 cm, scabrous, sparsely soft-hairy, and (partly glandular-)puberulent. Stem: simple, stout. Leaf: 30–50 mm; lobes of distal leaves 3–5, ± linear. Inflorescence: 5–10 cm; bracts differing abruptly from distal leaves, 20–30 mm, widely ovate, prominently net-veined, generally with 4 narrow lateral lobes proximal to middle, central lobe ± ovate, 7–10 mm wide, distal margin pink-lavender. Flower: calyx 15–20 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially, 2/3 adaxially, 1/4 on sides; corolla 25–30 mm, ± rose above, beak ± 10 mm, ± 3 mm > lower lip, glabrous, strongly curved, tip with conspicuous, cylindric, hooked tip, lower lip slightly pouched, puberulent, teeth rounded; stigma barely included. Fruit: 5–7 mm.
Openings in sagebrush scrub; < 1000 m. eastern Klamath Ranges, adjacent w Cascade Range (n-c Siskiyou Co.). May–Jun [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 2 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Orthocarpus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35519, accessed on Sep 2 2014

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click for enlargement Orthocarpus pachystachyus
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1996 Dean Wm. Taylor

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Orthocarpus pachystachyus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.