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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Annual, green. Leaf: alternate, sessile, entire to 3-lobed. Inflorescence: spike; bracts generally distinct from leaves, 1 per flower, entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, deepest sinus adaxial; corolla club-shaped, upper lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downward forming a hood enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, ± 3-pouched, (0)3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style, stigma slender. Fruit: generally ± notched. Seed: generally 8–15, often ± curved, ± keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting.Key to Orthocarpus
9 species: western North America. (Greek: straight fruit) [Chuang & Heckard 1992 Syst Bot 17:560–582] Close to Cordylanthus; other species formerly placed here are Castilleja (owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).
Plant 10–40 cm, yellow-green, often becoming ± purple-tinged, glandular- and longer-nonglandular-hairy. Stem: generally simple, slender. Leaf: 15–50 mm, ± linear, entire or upper deeply 3-lobed. Inflorescence: 5–20 cm, densely glandular-puberulent; bracts grading into distal leaves, 10–20 mm, ± green, 2 lateral lobes proximal to middle, narrowly triangular, central lobe ± lanceolate, 2–5 mm wide. Flower: calyx 5–8 mm, divided 1/3 abaxially, 3/4 adaxially, 1/4 on sides; corolla 10–15 mm, golden-yellow, exserted, puberulent (especially beak), lips ± equal, beak 2–4 mm, tip obscurely hooked, downward-projecting, cylindric, lower lip moderately pouched, teeth 3, 0.5 mm, blunt, incurved; stigma included. Fruit: 5–7 mm. Seed: 20–35, ± yellow to dark brown.
2n=28. Moist fields, sagebrush scrub, mountain meadows; 1300–3000 m. Great Basin Floristic Province, adjacent edges; to British Columbia, north-central United States, New Mexico. Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Orthocarpus imbricatus
Next taxon: Orthocarpus pachystachyus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 10 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Orthocarpus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35518, accessed on Mar 10 2014
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© 2012 Jean Pawek
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