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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Annual, green. Leaf: alternate, sessile, entire to 3-lobed. Inflorescence: spike; bracts generally distinct from leaves, 1 per flower, entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, deepest sinus adaxial; corolla club-shaped, upper lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downward forming a hood enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, ± 3-pouched, (0)3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style, stigma slender. Fruit: generally ± notched. Seed: generally 8–15, often ± curved, ± keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting.Key to Orthocarpus
9 species: western North America. (Greek: straight fruit) [Chuang & Heckard 1992 Syst Bot 17:560–582] Close to Cordylanthus; other species formerly placed here are Castilleja (owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).
Plant 10–35 cm, ± puberulent. Stem: simple or branched distally. Leaf: 20–50 mm, entire, ± lanceolate. Inflorescence: 2–8 cm; bracts differing abruptly from distal leaves, 10–15 mm, strongly net-veined, with 2 small, lateral lobes from near base, central lobe widely oblong, 5–10 mm wide, ± rose on distal 1/3. Flower: calyx 5–7 mm, hairy, divided 3/4 abaxially and adaxially, 1/4 on sides; corolla 10–15 mm, nearly hidden by bract, ± rose, beak ± 4 mm, ± 0.5 mm > lower lip, with conspicuous, cylindric, hooked tip, cylindric, lower lip moderately pouched, ± yellow, teeth 0.5 mm, triangular, densely puberulent; stigma well included. Fruit: ± 5 mm. Seed: 3–5, dark brown.
2n=28. Mtn meadows, grassy or rocky slopes; 1600–2400 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range; to British Columbia. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. cuspidatus
Next taxon: Orthocarpus luteus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 10 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Orthocarpus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35517, accessed on Mar 10 2014
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© 2007 Shawn DeCew
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