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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Annual, green. Leaf: alternate, sessile, entire to 3-lobed. Inflorescence: spike; bracts generally distinct from leaves, 1 per flower, entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, deepest sinus adaxial; corolla club-shaped, upper lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downward forming a hood enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, ± 3-pouched, (0)3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style, stigma slender. Fruit: generally ± notched. Seed: generally 8–15, often ± curved, ± keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting.Key to Orthocarpus
9 species: western North America. (Greek: straight fruit) [Chuang & Heckard 1992 Syst Bot 17:560–582] Close to Cordylanthus; other species formerly placed here are Castilleja (owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).
Plant 10–40 cm, minutely scabrous, glandular-puberulent, generally becoming ± purple-tinged. Stem: generally simple, slender. Leaf: 15–35 mm, ± linear; proximal entire; distal 3-lobed to middle. Inflorescence: 3–20 cm, densely puberulent; bracts grading into distal leaves, 10–20 mm, ± ovate, green or distal occasionally becoming purple-tinged, 2 lateral lobes proximal to middle, central lobe ± lanceolate, 3–5 mm wide. Flower: calyx 6–10 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially and on sides, 2/3 adaxially; corolla generally 12–20 mm, white to ± purple, exserted, lips ± equal, beak 4–6 mm, beak tip strongly hooked, glabrous, lower lip deeply pouched, teeth 0; stigma barely exserted. Fruit: 5–7 mm. Seed: light brown.
2n=30. Moist meadows; 500–2000 m. Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada (Plumas Co.), Modoc Plateau; to British Columbia. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Orthocarpus
Next taxon: Orthocarpus cuspidatus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Feb 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Orthocarpus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35514, accessed on Feb 28 2015
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© 2005 Norman Jensen
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Orthocarpus bracteosus|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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