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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Annual, perennial herb, not green (holoparasites), generally glandular-puberulent distally; root attachment occasionally tuber-like. Stem: simple or branched. Inflorescence: generally ± spike-like (proximal flowers often short-pedicelled or on short branches), generally dense; flowers generally > 20; bracts generally lanceolate to deltate (wider on peduncle); bractlets 0 or 2. Flower: calyx lobes 4–5; corolla glandular-puberulent, generally lacking ring of hairs at stamen bases, upper lip erect to reflexed, 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, spreading, throat floor with yellow folds; anthers glabrous to hairy; stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: 2-valved; placentas generally 2, often lobed. Seed: < 0.7 mm.Key to Orobanche
140 species: worldwide, especially Mediterranean. (Greek: vetch strangler, from parasitic habit) [Heckard 1973 Madroño 22:41–70]
Stem: 0.5–5 cm. Inflorescence: generally raceme; flowers generally 1–3; bracts generally < 6, generally glabrous; pedicels 3–12 cm, scapose, bractlets 0. Flower: calyx lobes 5, generally 4–8 mm, > tube, narrowly triangular; corolla 12–35 mm, ± horizontal, generally pale ± purple to ± yellow, lobes generally rounded, minutely ciliate; anthers generally hairy; stigma lobes 2, margins recurved; orange nectary gland at base of ovary.
2n=36,48,±70. Generally moist places, on herbs, especially Sedum, Saxifragaceae, Asteraceae; < 3100 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley (Sutter Buttes), Central Western California, South Coast, n Channel Islands, Warner Mountains; to Yukon Territory, eastern North America. If recognized taxonomically, plants < 20 cm of northern and central California to Canada with corollas deep violet, 25–35 mm, assignable to Orobanche uniflora var. purpurea (A. Heller) Achey. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Orobanche uniflora var. minuta (Suksd.) Beck; Orobanche uniflora subsp. occidentalis (Greene) Ferris; Orobanche uniflora var. sedi (Suksd.) Achey]
Previous taxon: Orobanche ramosa
Next taxon: Orobanche valida
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 8 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Orobanche, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35481, accessed on Mar 8 2014
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