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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Perennial, shrub, tree, generally fleshy.
Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers.
Leaf: generally 0 or early- deciduous, flat to ± cylindric.
Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids.
Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [ unisexual], sessile, radial [ bilateral]; perianth parts generally many , scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many].
Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth.
Seed: generally many, occasionally 0–few.
± 125 genera, ± 1800 species: Am (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. [Parfitt & Gibson 2004 FNANM 4:92–257] Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha. —Scientific Editors: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Hunt 2006 The New Cactus Lexicon, DH Books, Milborne Port, England]
Key to Cactaceae
Shrub, tree; roots fibrous [tuberous].Key to Opuntia
Stem: generally erect, < 6  m; segments generally flat (± cylindric), generally firmly attached; tubercles 0 to ± developed; ribs 0.
Leaf: small, conic, fleshy, deciduous, present on young stems, ovaries.
Spines: 0–many per areole, cylindric or flat, tip smooth or barbed, epidermis persistent; glochids generally many.
Fruit: juicy, fleshy or dry; wall thick, bearing areoles; spiny or not.
Seed: in a bony, ± white aril.
± 150 species: Am; Opuntia ficus-indica cultivated for food, others for ornamental. (Possibly from Papago Indian name ("opun") for this food plant; or for a spiny plant of Opus, Greece) Spines smaller, fewer in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Spineless stems, ovaries, and fruit generally with glochids, these occasionally long, conspicuous; hybridization common. Taxa with cylindric to club-shaped stems moved to Cylindropuntia, Grusonia.
Stem: < 1 m; branches sprawling to ± erect; segments 19–35 cm, generally obovate, gray-green, glabrous.
Spines: 3–6 in 90–100% of areoles, generally flat, generally straight, longest 2.5–5 cm, ± spreading, distal 1–2 yellow, coated ± white, base brown, proximal 2–4 shorter, ± reflexed.
Flower: inner perianth yellow to deep pink; filaments generally yellow; style pink to white, stigma green.
Fruit: 4.5–5 cm, juicy, red-purple; areoles 24–30.
Seed: 4–5.5 mm.
2n=66. Chaparral; 7–400 m. South Coast, w edge Peninsular Ranges.
Previous taxon: Opuntia microdasys
Next taxon: Opuntia oricola
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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