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ONAGRACEAE EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

Key to Onagraceae

OENOTHERA EVENING-PRIMROSE
Annual to perennial herb, generally from taproot, occasionally rhizomed. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed, generally sessile. Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of distal, reduced leaves. Flower: radial or (sect. Gaura) bilateral, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2–3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or ± purple, generally fading ± orange to ± purple, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, filaments sometimes (sect. Gaura) with paired teeth at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated). Fruit: generally dehiscent, cylindric to ovoid or obovoid, cylindric to 4-winged or -angled, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like). Seed: in generally 2(1–3) rows per chamber, or clustered or reduced to 1–4 per fruit.
145 species: America, some widely naturalized. (Greek: wine-scented) [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240]
Unabridged references: [Raven & Gregory 1972 Mem Torrey Bot Club 23:1–96; Dietrich & Wagner 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 24:1–91]
Unabridged note: Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and ± 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically identical offspring.

Key to Oenothera

O. speciosa Nutt.
NATURALIZED
Perennial herb, rosetted when young, forming large patches from woody caudices and rhizomes, minutely strigose (some hairs also longer). Stem: weakly ascending to erect, 1–5 dm. Leaf: cauline 2.5–8 cm, oblanceolate to ± elliptic, ± entire to wavy-lobed. Inflorescence: flowers in distal axils; stem tip nodding. Flower: hypanthium 10–23 mm; sepals 15–30 mm, free tips in bud 1–4 mm; petals 25–40 mm, white fading pink or rose-purple. Fruit: 10–25 mm, widening upward (to 3–5 mm), 8-ribbed; stalk-like base (4)8–15 mm, 1.5–2 mm wide, cylindric. Seed: clustered in each chamber, 1–1.5 mm, obliquely oblanceolate, finely granular-papillate.
2n=14,28,42. Disturbed places; generally < 500 m. South Coast; native New Mexico to central United States, central Mexico. [Oenothera speciosa var. childsii (L.H. Bailey) Munz] Commonly cultivated, doubtfully naturalized; cross-pollinated. May–Sep [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Oenothera sinuosa
Next taxon: Oenothera stricta subsp. stricta

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 27 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Oenothera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35050, accessed on Jul 27 2014

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click for enlargement Oenothera speciosa
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2008 Ron Thomas

Bioregions in which Oenothera speciosa occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.