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ONAGRACEAE EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

Key to Onagraceae

OENOTHERA EVENING-PRIMROSE
Annual to perennial herb, generally from taproot, occasionally rhizomed. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed, generally sessile. Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of distal, reduced leaves. Flower: radial or (sect. Gaura) bilateral, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2–3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or ± purple, generally fading ± orange to ± purple, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, filaments sometimes (sect. Gaura) with paired teeth at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated). Fruit: generally dehiscent, cylindric to ovoid or obovoid, cylindric to 4-winged or -angled, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like). Seed: in generally 2(1–3) rows per chamber, or clustered or reduced to 1–4 per fruit.
145 species: America, some widely naturalized. (Greek: wine-scented) [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240]
Unabridged references: [Raven & Gregory 1972 Mem Torrey Bot Club 23:1–96; Dietrich & Wagner 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 24:1–91]
Unabridged note: Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and ± 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically identical offspring.

Key to Oenothera

O. cavernae Munz CAVE EVENING-PRIMROSE
NATIVE
Winter or spring annual, rosetted, from a ± fleshy tapering taproot. Stem: 0 or with a central and generally several lateral stems to ± 3–4 cm. Leaf: (0.5)2.5–13(19.5) cm, (0.2)0.6–2.3(2.7) cm wide, oblanceolate to elliptic-oblanceolate or lyre-shaped and pinnately lobed to nearly entire, green to red-green, lustrous, generally with numerous scattered red-purple splotches, minutely glandular-hairy, sometimes also sparsely rough-coarse-hairy, finely crenate-dentate to entire. Inflorescence: flowers in axils. Flower: hypanthium 20–37(47) mm; sepals 4.5–12 mm, without free tips in bud; petals 6.5–20(25) mm, white, fading to a pale pink. Fruit: 12–38 mm, 6–14 mm wide, ellipsoid-ovoid to ovoid, tapering to a sterile beak 2–8 mm, valves with 8–20 nearly distinct tubercles or with a wavy ridge, dehiscing 1/3–1/2; sessile (pedicel <= 1 cm). Seed: 2.5–3.1 mm, 1.1–1.4 mm wide, obovoid, with a cavity on one side, membrane 0.
2n=14. Joshua-tree woodland, desert scrub in dry, gravelly (often calcareous) soils on slopes, cliffs, and ridges; 760–1280 m. Desert Mountains (e Clark Mtn Range, also base of range in Ivanpah Valley); southern Nevada, southern Utah, northern Arizona. Self-pollinated. Apr–May [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

Previous taxon: Oenothera californica subsp. eurekensis
Next taxon: Oenothera cespitosa

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Oenothera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34982, accessed on Oct 22 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Oenothera cavernae Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.