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Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Plantaginaceae


Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax

Annual to biennial. Stem: erect, simple or branched at base. Leaf: on flower stem generally alternate, sessile, linear, entire to dentate, pinnately veined; on non-flowering stems whorled, generally wider. Inflorescence: raceme, terminal; bracts reduced, alternate. Flower: calyx lobes 5, deep, ± equal; corolla 5-lobed, unequally 2-lipped, lower lip >> upper, lower side of tube spurred at base or spur 0, lower side of throat swollen, ± hairy, ± closing corolla proximal to lips; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, included; stigma small, unlobed. Fruit: dehiscent by slits into chambers near tip, ± spheric. Seed: many, prismatic, 4–7-angled, faces smooth or tubercled.
4 species: North America, South America, introduced elsewhere. (Thomas Nuttall, English naturalist, 1786–1859) [Crawford & Elisens 2006 Amer J Bot 93:582–591]
Unabridged references: [Sutton 1988 Revision of the tribe Antirrhineae. Oxford Univ Press]

N. texanus (Scheele) D.A. Sutton BLUE TOADFLAX
Generally glabrous. Stem: 10–60 cm, slender, with decumbent non-flowering shoots. Leaf: 5–25 mm, narrowly linear, obtuse. Inflorescence: raceme, dense in flower, open in fruit, ± glandular-puberulent; pedicels 1.5–6 mm, > bracts; flowers opening or cleistogamous. Flower: calyx ± 3 mm, lobes lance-linear, tips acute; corolla 10–24 mm (including spur), violet to blue, lips spreading, lower lip 6–11 mm, >> upper, throat swelling ± obscure, white-ridged, spur 6–11 mm, straight or curved, slender. Fruit: ± 3 mm. Seed: 0.5 mm, faces ± tubercled.
n=12. Sand or gravel; < 1800 m. Northwestern California (except High North Coast Ranges), Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California (except San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains), Desert Mountains (Granite Mtns, w San Bernardino Co.); southwestern and south-central United States, Mexico, temperate South America. [Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum.Cours. var. texana (Scheele) Pennell; Linaria canadensis (L.) Chaz., in part, misappl.] Mar–May [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Nuttallanthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Nuttallanthus texanus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.