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Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, 2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Plantaginaceae
1 sp. (Greek: false turtle, from corolla like that of Chelone, turtlehead)
Perennial herb from caudex; hairs often pointing downward. Stem: erect, 3–10 dm. Leaf: cauline, opposite, sessile to short-petioled; larger blades 4–14 cm, lanceolate to ovate, base cordate or rounded, tip acute to acuminate, margin coarsely toothed. Inflorescence: panicle, glandular, few-flowered; bracts small. Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal, 5–13 mm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate; corolla 26–33 mm, 8–11 mm wide when pressed, rose-purple to dark red, lower side often paler, glandular outside, glabrous inside, upper lip 2.4–5 mm, shallowly 2-lobed, lower lip 5–9 mm; stamens 4, filament hairs longest at base, attached to corolla at 1 level, anthers ± 1 mm, long-woolly-hairy, anther sacs spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode coarsely bearded, included; nectary a disk; stigma unlobed. Fruit: 10–15 mm. Seed: 2–3.5 mm, flat, widely winged.
2n=30. Rocky places in open Douglas-fir, yellow-pine, and mixed-evergreen forests; 1200–2300 m. Klamath Ranges, n High Cascade Range; to British Columbia. [Chelone nemorosa Lindl.; Penstemon nemorosus (Lindl.) Trautv.] Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Nothochelone nemorosa (Dougl. ex Lindl.) Straw; Chelone nemorosa Dougl. ex Lindl.; Penstemon nemorosus (Dougl. ex Lindl.) Trautv.
Previous taxon: Nothochelone
Next taxon: Nuttallanthus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Nothochelone, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34705, accessed on Apr 23 2014
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