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SOLANACEAE NIGHTSHADE FAMILY

Michael H. Nee

Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla ± radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2–5-chambered.
75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially ± tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); many TOXIC. [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum. Koeltz Scientific Books] Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum: The Genera of Solanaceae Illustrated, Arranged According to a New System by A.T. Hunziker. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany]

Key to Solanaceae

NICANDRA
Annual. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils. Flower: calyx lobes > tube, winged toward base; corolla widely bell-shaped, lobes shallow, tube base with ring of hairs; ovary 3–5-chamberd. Fruit: ± capsule, 1–2 cm, spheric, irregularly dehiscent.
2 species: South America, cultivated. (Nicander, botanical poet, Asia Minor, ± 100 B.C.)
Unabridged note: A 3rd sp., evidently not in California, to be described.

N. physalodes (L.) Gaertn. APPLE OF PERU, SHOO-FLY PLANT
WAIF
Plant < 2 m. Stem: strong-5-ribbed, hollow. Leaf: 8–30 cm; blade ovate, toothed to lobed. Flower: calyx enlarging, ± enclosing fruit; corolla 15–30 mm, pale blue; filaments 4–5 mm; ovary on orange disk, style 5–7 mm. Seed: many, brown.
Fields; < 200 m. South Coast; native to South America. May become naturalized in California, ± because plants so widely naturalized in similar climates elsewhere. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Nicandra, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34638, accessed on Jul 31 2014

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Bioregions in which Nicandra physalodes occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.