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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual. Stem: simple to branched, prostrate to erect, fleshy, brittle, angled or winged, glabrous to generally bristly (prickly). Leaf: cauline, lower generally opposite, upper opposite or alternate, generally reduced; petiole generally bristly-ciliate; blade pinnate-toothed or -lobed, generally bristly. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils or opposite leaves; pedicels longer in fruit, recurved. Flower: calyx bell-shaped to rotate, sinuses generally with spreading or reflexed appendages; corolla bell-shaped to rotate, white, blue, or purple, spotted or marked or not; stamens included; ovary chamber 1, style 1, generally 1/3–1/2 forked. Fruit: generally 2–7 mm wide, spheric to ovoid, hairy, generally enclosed by calyx. Seed: ovoid, smooth, wrinkled or pitted, with a conic, colorless appendage at 1 end.Key to Nemophila
11 species: southeastern United States, western North America. (Greek: woodland-loving)
Unabridged references: [Constance 1941 Univ California Publ Bot 19:341–398]
Leaf: opposite, 5–30 mm, petiole winged, > blade; lower blades oblanceolate to spoon-shaped, base tapered, lobes 3–5, shallow, generally entire; upper blades oblanceolate to wide-tapered, teeth 3–5, shallow, triangular, generally entire. Inflorescence: pedicels 3–8 mm, < 30 mm in fruit. Flower: calyx lobes 2–5 mm, appendages 1–2 mm in fruit; corolla 2–8 mm, 2–10 mm wide, bowl-shaped, white or blue, generally darker-veined, dotted, with purple-spots on lobes or not, tube > filaments; anthers < 2 mm; style < 2 mm, tip lobed. Seed: 5–7, brown, smooth but shallow-pitted.
n=9. Meadows, roadsides, slopes; 1100–3200 m. High Cascade Range, s Sierra Nevada Foothills, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, San Jacinto Mountains, Warner Mountains; western Nevada. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Nemophila pulchella var. pulchella
Next taxon: Pectocarya
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 4 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Nemophila, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34547, accessed on Mar 4 2015
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© 2005 Steve Matson
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Nemophila spatulata|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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