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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple or compound, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual. Stem: simple to branched, prostrate to erect, fleshy, brittle, angled or winged, glabrous to generally bristly (prickly). Leaf: simple, cauline, lower generally opposite, upper opposite or alternate, generally reduced; petiole generally bristly-ciliate; blade pinnate-toothed or -lobed, generally bristly. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils or opposite leaves; pedicels longer in fruit, recurved. Flower: calyx bell-shaped to rotate, sinuses generally with spreading or reflexed appendages; corolla bell-shaped to rotate, white, blue, or purple, spotted or marked or not; stamens included; ovary chamber 1, style 1, generally 1/3–1/2 forked. Fruit: generally 2–7 mm wide, spheric to ovoid, hairy, generally enclosed by calyx. Seed: ovoid, smooth, wrinkled or pitted, with a conic, colorless appendage at 1 end.Key to Nemophila
11 species: southeastern United States, western North America. (Greek: woodland-loving)
Unabridged references: [Constance 1941 Univ California Publ Bot 19:341–398]
Leaf: opposite; blade >= petiole, 5–35 mm, oblong to ovate, lobes 5–9, deep, generally entire, obtuse or acute. Inflorescence: pedicels 4–12 mm, < 45 mm in fruit. Flower: calyx lobes 1–4 mm, appendages < 3 mm in fruit; corolla 2–5 mm, 2–8 mm wide, bowl- or bell-shaped, white or blue, generally dark-veined or with black, blue, or purple dots, purple-spotted or not at lobe tips, tube = filaments; anthers < 1 mm; style < 2 mm. Seed: 2–8, black, brown, or green, smooth, wrinkled, or pitted.
n=9. Common. Ocean bluffs, grassland, slopes, meadows, sandbars, fields, woodland, streambanks; < 2400 m. California Floristic Province, Modoc Plateau; to British Columbia, Idaho, Nevada, Baja California. Feb–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Nemophila pedunculata Douglas ex Benth.
Previous taxon: Nemophila parviflora var. quercifolia
Next taxon: Nemophila pulchella
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 7 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Nemophila, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34544, accessed on Mar 7 2014
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
|Bioregions in which Nemophila pedunculata occurs|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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