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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Nancy R. Morin, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]

Key to Campanulaceae

Annual, from taproot. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or erect; base generally ± brown or ± purple; branches 0 or below middle. Leaf: basal; petiole short or 0. Inflorescence: ± raceme-like; bract 1 per flower, small; pedicel generally thread-like. Flower: inverted or not; sepals linear to triangular; corolla ± radial or 2-lipped, lobes 5; filaments free at base, fused into tube around style distally, appendages attached to a stalk or directly on 2 adjacent filaments, each with 2–12 cells, anthers free, all alike; ovary superior to 1/2 inferior, hemispheric to obconic, nectary glands 3, mounded or donut-like, on free part of ovary, stigma 2-lobed, papillate. Fruit: generally > hypanthium, hemispheric to fusiform, top pointed or rounded, chambers 2; open at top generally by 2 valves (or circumscissile). Seed: elliptic to oblong.
18 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. (Greek: thread-like branch) [Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397–400] In descriptions, "filaments" including both free and fused parts thereof.
Unabridged references: [McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A:1–134]
Unabridged note: Taxonomic changes from TJM (1993) based on ITS, atpB, morphology. Parishella californica nested within Nemacladus, in which it is here treated.

Key to Nemacladus

N. rubescens Greene
Erect, branches many, generally 2–2.5 cm from base, 5–20 cm. Stem: ascending, base silver-gray. Leaf: 5–20 mm, elliptic, blunt, entire, glabrous or coarsely hairy, narrowed abruptly to winged petiole; basal ± yellow or yellow-green in age, not ± purple. Inflorescence: axis weakly zigzag; bracts 1–2(3) mm, lanceolate to ovate, appressed to pedicel base; pedicels 8–15 mm, 0.1–0.2 mm diam, spreading to ascending, straight, tip not curved. Flower: not inverted; hypanthium 0.2–0.3 mm; sepals 0.7–1.5 mm, elliptic to deltate, erect; corolla conspicuously 2-lipped, divided ± to base, cream, 3 adaxial lobes 1.5–2.5 mm, widely oblong-acute, with ± brown chevron at tip, middle adaxial erect, flanking spreading, ± ciliate, 2 abaxial declined, 2–3 mm, narrowly oblong, ± brown-tipped; filaments 1.6–3 mm, declined, straight or tip ± curved, appendage stalk continuous with base of filaments, cells widely tubular, blunt, anthers 0.5–0.7 mm; ovary 1/4–1/2-inferior. Fruit: 2–2.5 mm, base narrowed, tip rounded. Seed: 0.4 mm, widely elliptic, with wavy ridges alternate weakly pitted rows.
Dry, sandy or gravelly soils; < 1600 m. Peninsular Ranges (e slope), East of Sierra Nevada, Desert; Nevada, Arizona, Baja California. [Nemacladus rubescens var. rubescens; Nemacladus adenophorus Parish] Apr–May [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Nemacladus rigidus
Next taxon: Nemacladus secundiflorus


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 24 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Nemacladus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 24 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Nemacladus rubescens Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.