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Key to families | Table of families and genera
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Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]
Key to Campanulaceae
Annual, from taproot. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or erect; base generally ± brown or ± purple; branches 0 or below middle. Leaf: basal; petiole short or 0. Inflorescence: ± raceme-like; bract 1 per flower, small; pedicel generally thread-like. Flower: inverted or not; sepals linear to triangular; corolla ± radial or 2-lipped, lobes 5; filaments free at base, fused into tube around style distally, appendages attached to a stalk or directly on 2 adjacent filaments, each with 2–12 cells, anthers free, all alike; ovary superior to 1/2 inferior, hemispheric to obconic, nectary glands 3, mounded or donut-like, on free part of ovary, stigma 2-lobed, papillate. Fruit: generally > hypanthium, hemispheric to fusiform, top pointed or rounded, chambers 2; open at top generally by 2 valves (or circumscissile). Seed: elliptic to oblong.Key to Nemacladus
18 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. (Greek: thread-like branch) [Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397–400] In descriptions, "filaments" including both free and fused parts thereof.
Unabridged references: [McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A:1–134]
Unabridged note: Taxonomic changes from TJM (1993) based on ITS, atpB, morphology. Parishella californica nested within Nemacladus, in which it is here treated.
Erect, 5–32 cm, branched from base only. Stem: ascending. Leaf: 3–18 mm, oblanceolate, irregularly toothed or ± pinnately lobed, hairy on margins, base, narrowed to slender or wide petiole. Inflorescence: axis straight; bracts 2–9 mm, linear, erect; pedicels 6–22 mm, 0.7 mm diam, ± spreading, ± S-curved or straight, tip erect. Flower: generally not inverted; hypanthium 0.5 mm; sepals ± 0.5 mm, deltate, erect; corolla not conspicuously 2-lipped, divided > 1/2 to base, white, glabrous, tube bell-shaped, lobes elliptic, 1 mm, spreading to ascending, midvein dark; filaments 1–2 mm, curled upward, appendage cells extended from base of filaments, narrow, blunt, anthers 0.2–0.3 mm; ovary 1/2-inferior. Fruit: ± 1.5–2.5 mm, bulging near base (base asymmetrically narrowed, tip rounded). Seed: ± 0.5 mm, ± spheric, with clearly pitted rows.
Dry, sandy or gravelly soils, burned areas, chaparral; 30–1600 m. Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains, Peninsular Ranges. Apr–May [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Nemacladus pinnatifidus
Next taxon: Nemacladus rigidus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Nemacladus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34510, accessed on Apr 20 2014
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