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HALORAGACEAE WATER-MILFOIL FAMILY

Adolf Ceska & Oldriska Ceska

[Annual, shrub] perennial herb, generally aquatic or semiterrestrial, dioecious or monoecious. Leaf: cauline, opposite, alternate or whorled; submersed blades pinnately divided, segments thread-like; emergent leaves simple, entire to divided. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or panicle; flowers 1 or clustered, short-pedicelled to ± sessile. Flower: generally unisexual, small; calyx tube short, fused to ovary, lobes 2–4; petals generally 2–4; stamens 4 or 8, filaments generally short; ovary inferior, chambers 1–4, styles 2–4, separate, stigmas generally plumose. Fruit: fleshy or of nut-like mericarps, dehiscent or not. Seed: generally 1 per chamber.
6–8 genera, ± 100 species: especially southern hemisphere, some cultivated. [Aiken & McNeill 1980 J Linn Soc Bot 80:213–222] Haloragis erecta (Murray) Eichler not naturalized in California. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.

MYRIOPHYLLUM WATER-MILFOIL
Plant from rhizomes, occasionally with overwintering buds (late in growing season); occasionally terrestrial. Stem: simple or branched, generally green. Leaf: submersed leaves generally whorled, 3–6 per node; emergent leaves entire to pinnately divided, occasionally bract-like. Inflorescence: generally emergent, spike-like, simple or branched, terminal, flowers in whorls. Flower: proximal pistillate, middle occasionally bisexual, distal staminate; calyx lobes 4; petals generally 4, ephemeral on staminate flowers, minute or 0 on pistillate flowers; stamens generally 8; ovary 4-chambered. Fruit: mericarps 4, nut-like.
± 60 species: worldwide. (Greek: many leaves, from leaf segments) [Ceska et al. 1986 Brittonia 38:73–81] Myriophyllum specimens best collected in flower or fruit.
Unabridged note: Plants should be washed first and then "floated" on the herbarium mounting paper in a shallow dish with water [see Ceska & Ceska 1987 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 73:825–827].

Key to Myriophyllum

M. aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. PARROT'S FEATHER
NATURALIZED
Dioecious; winter buds 0. Stem: < 1 m, bright green to ± gray-green, leafy throughout. Leaf: submersed leaves 1.5–3.5 cm, length 3–4 × width, segments 20–30 per leaf, ± 7 mm. Inflorescence: terminal, generally emergent. Staminate flower: stamens 8; ovary vestigial. Pistillate flower: stamens 0. Fruit: generally 0 (in California).
Common. Ponds, streams, lakes; < 500 m. North Coast, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, Mojave Desert; southern and eastern United States, warm temperate, tropics worldwide; native to South America. Plants generally pistillate (staminate unknown in California), clonal; forms dense colonies with emergent branches; escaped from original plantings as ornamental. Jul–Sep {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Myriophyllum brasiliense Cambess.; Myriophyllum proserpinacoides Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Myriophyllum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34261, accessed on Nov 22 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Myriophyllum aquaticum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.