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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

MYOSOTIS FORGET-ME-NOT

Ronald B. Kelley & Elaine Joyal

Annual to perennial herb, glabrous to rough-hairy; roots generally fibrous. Stem: decumbent to erect. Leaf: basal generally oblong or oblanceolate; cauline generally linear to elliptic. Inflorescence: generally raceme-like cymes, coiled, in age ± open; bracts 0 (leaf-like). Flower: calyx lobes 5, tube hairs appressed to spreading, hooked at tip or not; corolla salverform or wide-funnel-shaped, generally blue, white, or yellow, appendages prominent or not; stamens included; style generally included. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, ± lens-shaped, smooth, shiny, each with raised outer margin, attachment scar adaxially, at base, small.
50 species: temperate, boreal. (Greek: mouse ear, from leaf) Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill reported from Orange Co., 1938, not persisting.
Unabridged references: [Grau 1964 Osterr Bot Zeitschr 111:561–617]

Key to Myosotis

M. scorpioides L. WATER FORGET-ME-NOT
NATURALIZED
Perennial herb. Stem: 2–6 dm, generally unbranched, base often creeping or stolon-like; ± strigose. Leaf: 2.5–8 cm, 7–20 mm wide; basal oblanceolate; cauline oblong or elliptic to lance-elliptic. Inflorescence: bracts 0; pedicel in fruit spreading, ± >= calyx. Flower: calyx 3–5 mm, tube hairs sparse-appressed-strigose, not hooked at tip, lobes << tube, occasionally unequal, wide-triangular, in fruit < 6 mm; corolla 5–10 mm diam, blue, salverform, blue, appendages prominent, yellow. Fruit: nutlets > 1.5 mm, ± <= style, ovate, ± black, marginal rim obscure.
2n=64. Shallow water, wet soil; (75)1050–2100+ m. High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains; western Oregon, Washington, to eastern North America; native to Europe. Other reported locations need documentation; most easily confused with Myosotis laxa. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 2 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Myosotis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34214, accessed on Sep 2 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Myosotis scorpioides Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.