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SCROPHULARIACEAE FIGWORT FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to tree, generally glandular, some ± aquatic. Stem: round to square in ×-section. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0 (present in Limosella). Inflorescence: spike to panicle (head-like), generally bracted, or flowers 1–4 in axils. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx lobes 4–5; corolla bilateral to radial, lobes 4–5; stamens epipetalous, 4–5, 5th a staminode in Scrophularia; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal, or drupe-like.
± 65 genera, 1700 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (Verbascum). [Olmstead et al. 2001 Amer J Bot 88:348–361] Other taxa moved to Plantaginaceae (Antirrhinum, Bacopa, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Dopatrium, Gambelia, Gratiola, Hebe, Holmgrenanthe, Keckiella, Kickxia, Limnophila, Linaria, Lindernia, Maurandella, Mohavea, Nothochelone, Penstemon, Pseudorontium, Stemodia, Synthyris, Tonella, Veronica), Orobanchaceae (Bellardia, Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Parentucellia, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus). —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Albach et al. 2005 Amer J Bot 92:297–315]

Key to Scrophulariaceae

MYOPORUM

Robert E. Preston & Elizabeth McClintock

Erect [prostrate] shrub, tree; glabrous. Leaf: alternate [opposite], evergreen, petioled [sessile], entire or toothed, with conspicuous, embedded, generally translucent glands. Inflorescence: axillary clusters [or 1]. Flower: bisexual, radial [to bilateral]; calyx 5-lobed, lobes ± equal; corolla lobes equal [distal < proximal]; stamens 4 [5–8], anthers generally exserted; ovary [2]4-loculed, ovules 1–2 per chamber, style 1, stigmas 1–2. Fruit: indehiscent, dry to drupe-like.
± 30 species: especially Australia. (Greek: from glandular pores on leaves) [Chinnock 2007 Myoporaceae. Rosenberg Publishing] Myoporum acuminatum R. Br., Myoporum parvifolium R. Br. reported in San Diego Co., cultivated, doubtfully naturalized. Treated in Myoporaceae in TJM (1993).

M. laetum G. Forst. MYOPORUM, NGAIO TREE
NATURALIZED
Plant 3–10 m, much-branched, broadly spreading; twig tips, young leaves ± bronze-green, sticky. Leaf: < 10 cm, generally lanceolate, finely serrate distally, bright green, ± fleshy. Inflorescence: flowers 2–4 per axil. Flower: corolla ± 10 mm diam, ± bell-shaped, white, purple-spotted, tube 3.5–4.5 mm, lobes 4–5.5 mm, glabrous abaxially, long-hairy adaxially. Fruit: 5–10 mm, ovoid, fleshy, pale to dark red-purple. Seed: 1 per chamber, 3–3.5 mm, oblong.
Open areas in grassland, scrub, riparian habitats, generally coastal; < 460 m. Central Coast, South Coast, Channel Islands, reported from North Coast (Sonoma Co.); native to New Zealand. TOXIC: leaves, fruits may be fatal to livestock. Commonly cultivated near coast. Early spring {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Myoporum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34200, accessed on Jul 31 2014

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click for enlargement Myoporum laetum
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2008 Neal Kramer

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.