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PONTEDERIACEAE PICKEREL-WEED FAMILY

Charles N. Horn & Elizabeth McClintock

Annual, perennial herb, submersed, emergent, floating, or on wet ground. Leaf: simple, alternate or whorled, ± in basal rosette or not; blade linear (especially underwater) to round, sometimes sagittate or cordate, base generally sheathing, veins parallel; petiole inflated or not. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, panicle, or 1-flowered, terminal but often appearing ± axillary, subtended by sheathing bract. Flower: bisexual, radial or ± bilateral; perianth lobes 6 (in 2 series) [3,4], petal-like; stamens 3, 6 (in 2 series) [1,4], from various levels on perianth tube, equal or not, sometimes 3 sterile, modified; ovary superior, 1 or 3-chambered. Fruit: many-seeded, loculicidal capsule [1-seeded utricle]. Seed: < 1 cm, longitudinally ribbed [or not].
± 6 genera, 30 species: most pantropical, some temperate. [Horn 2003 FNANM 26:22–45] Some cultivated as orns, some weeds, especially in rice fields. Pontederia cordata L. <Noxious weed> establishes from garden waste. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Eckenwalder, J.E. and S.C.H. Barrett. 1986. Phylogenetic systematics of Pontederiaceae. Syst. Bot. 11: 373–391.]

Key to Pontederiaceae

MONOCHORIA
Annual [perennial herb], generally emergent. Stem: ± erect, stout [elongate]. Leaf: in basal rosettes; blade ovate to narrowly lanceolate; petiole not inflated, generally > blade. Inflorescence: raceme, reflexed after flower. Flower: ± radial; perianth bell-shaped to rotate, tube < 1 cm, parts 6, nearly free; stamens 6, 1 generally > others; ovary 3-chambered.
6 species: tropical Africa, Asia, northeastern Australia. (Greek: 1 apart, from 1 stamen > others)

M. vaginalis (Burm. f.) Kunth
NATURALIZED
Stem: > 12 cm. Leaf: blade 2.5–11 cm; petiole 4–70 cm. Inflorescence: > 5 cm, few-flowered. Flower: generally opening under water; perianth blue, parts < 2 cm.
Uncommon. Rice fields; > 100 m. Sacramento Valley; native to tropical Australia, Asia. Sep [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Monochoria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=33961, accessed on Jul 25 2014

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click for enlargement Monochoria vaginalis
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2001 CDFA

Bioregions in which Monochoria vaginalis occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.