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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Dieter H. Wilken & Margriet Wetherwax, family description, key to genera

Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
± 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). [Harley et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 7:167–275] Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Lamiaceae


Thomas J. Rosatti & Dieter H. Wilken

Annual, [biennial, perennial herb, shrub], generally short-hairy. Stem: erect, generally branched. Leaf: petioled or not. Inflorescence: axillary, head-like, lower subtended by leaves, upper by bracts; bracts bristle-tipped [not]. Flower: ± sessile; calyx ± radial, lobes 5, ± equal; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip entire or ± 2-lobed, hood-like, arched, lower lip generally 2–3-lobed, central lobe generally > lateral lobes; stamens 2, fertile, ascending under upper lip, >= upper lip; style unequally lobed.
16 species: North America; some cultivated for flowers, tea. (Nicolas Monardes, Spanish physician, botanist, 1493–1588) [Prather et al. 2002 Syst Bot 27:127–137] Monarda citriodora Lag. (inflorescence bracts generally recurved near middle) not persisting.

M. pectinata Nutt. PLAINS BEE BALM
Stem: 1.5–3.5 dm; hairs short, ± curled down. Leaf: blade 1.5–4 cm, generally oblong to lanceolate, entire to serrate, ± glabrous to finely strigose especially on veins. Inflorescence: bracts ± straight, rarely recurved, then from base. Flower: calyx tube 6–8 mm, throat densely puberulent within, lobes 2–4 mm, long-acuminate; corolla 12–25 mm, white to pink, lower lip purple-spotted or not.
2n=18,36. Washes, rocky slopes, pinyon/juniper woodland; 1150–1500 m. e Desert Mountains (New York Mtns); to western Great Plains, northern Mexico. Possible allopolyploid between Monarda citriodora, Monarda clinopodioides A. Gray. Collections needed. May–Aug [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

Previous taxon: Monarda
Next taxon: Monardella


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Monarda, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Monarda pectinata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.