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Steven R. Hill, except as noted

Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]

Key to Malvaceae


1 sp.: America; introduced to Old World. (Latin: wheel hub, for fruit)
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: modiolus, hub of a wheel, for fruit)

M. caroliniana (L.) G. Don MODIOLA
(Annual) perennial herb, sparsely stellate-hairy except fruit, calyx. Stem: prostrate to decumbent or creeping, 1.5–5 dm, rooting near base, nodes. Leaf: stipules 3–5 mm, lanceolate, green, persistent; blade (2)5–8 cm, 2–5 cm wide, generally <= petiole, reniform, round, or triangular, especially upper deeply toothed to (3)5–7-lobed, lobes ± lobed or toothed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils; flowering stalks 5–25 mm; bractlets 3, free, generally narrowly lanceolate. Flower: calyx 5–6 mm, ± larger in fruit, divided ± 1/2, generally sparsely bristly, hairs 1–2 mm; petals 3–8 mm, generally > calyx, red-orange, base generally dark; anthers at stamen-tube tip; styles 15–25, stigmas head-like. Fruit: segments 15–25, 5–6 mm, reniform, black, bristly on top, chambers 2, lower wrinkly-sided, indehiscent, upper smooth-sided, dehiscent, beaks 2, 1.5–3 mm. Seed: 2, ± 1.5 mm, glabrous to minutely puberulent.
2n=18. Grassland, disturbed areas; generally < 400 m. California Floristic Province; to southeastern United States; probably native to southern South America; widely naturalized. Agricultural, lawn weed; tolerant of salt, drought, may accumulate nitrates, then TOXIC to some livestock. Mar–Nov [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Modiola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015

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click for enlargement Modiola caroliniana
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2006 Chet Blackburn

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Modiola caroliniana Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.