|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]
Key to Malvaceae
1 sp.: America; introduced to Old World. (Latin: wheel hub, for fruit)
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: modiolus, hub of a wheel, for fruit)
(Annual) perennial herb, sparsely stellate-hairy except fruit, calyx. Stem: prostrate to decumbent or creeping, 1.5–5 dm, rooting near base, nodes. Leaf: stipules 3–5 mm, lanceolate, green, persistent; blade (2)5–8 cm, 2–5 cm wide, generally <= petiole, reniform, round, or triangular, especially upper deeply toothed to (3)5–7-lobed, lobes ± lobed or toothed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils; flowering stalks 5–25 mm; bractlets 3, free, generally narrowly lanceolate. Flower: calyx 5–6 mm, ± larger in fruit, divided ± 1/2, generally sparsely bristly, hairs 1–2 mm; petals 3–8 mm, generally > calyx, red-orange, base generally dark; anthers at stamen-tube tip; styles 15–25, stigmas head-like. Fruit: segments 15–25, 5–6 mm, reniform, black, bristly on top, chambers 2, lower wrinkly-sided, indehiscent, upper smooth-sided, dehiscent, beaks 2, 1.5–3 mm. Seed: 2, ± 1.5 mm, glabrous to minutely puberulent.
2n=18. Grassland, disturbed areas; generally < 400 m. California Floristic Province; to southeastern United States; probably native to southern South America; widely naturalized. Agricultural, lawn weed; tolerant of salt, drought, may accumulate nitrates, then TOXIC to some livestock. Mar–Nov [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Modiola
Next taxon: Sida
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Modiola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=33863, accessed on Sep 22 2014
Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
See CalPhotos for additional images
© 2006 Chet Blackburn
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Modiola caroliniana|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
View elevation by latitude chart
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month