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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, shrub, tree, generally fleshy. Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers. Leaf: generally 0 or early-deciduous, flat to ± cylindric. Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids. Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [unisexual], sessile, radial [bilateral]; perianth parts generally many , scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many]. Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth. Seed: generally many, occasionally 0–few.
± 125 genera, ± 1800 species: America (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. [Parfitt & Gibson 2004 FNANM 4:92–257] Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha. —Scientific Editors: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Hunt 2006 The New Cactus Lexicon, DH Books, Milborne Port, England]
Key to Cactaceae
Generally erect (decumbent or prostrate), branched or not, branches 0–9(50). Stem: 5–30 cm, [1.8]3–7.5 cm diam, spheric to cylindric [or obconic], firm to soft, not regularly segmented; ribs 0, tubercles prominent, conic to cylindric, not grooved. Spines: 14–64(90) per areole, < 2 mm diam, needle-like [to hair-like or bristle-like], glabrous [or plumose], straight or hooked [or curved to crinkly]; central spines 1–4 [0–many] per areole, generally hooked. Flower: lateral, in axils of tubercles, 1–5 [7.5] cm diam; perianth cream to white, pink, purple, or lavender; ovary glabrous, spines 0, scales 0. Fruit: club-shaped or cylindric to ovoid [or barrel-shaped], indehiscent, generally red, spines 0. Seed: 0.8–1.5 mm, generally shiny, generally pitted or raised-netted, black [brown to ± red or ± yellow], occasionally with aril.Key to Mammillaria
150 species: North America. (Latin: nipple) [Hunt 1984 Bradleya 2:65–96; Hunt 1985 Bradleya 3:53–66; Hunt 1987 Bradleya 5:17–48]
Stem: generally 1, 7–25 cm, 3.5–7.5 cm diam, cylindric, soft; tubercle axils bristly. Spines: central spines 3–4 per areole, lowermost 18–25 mm, 1+ hooked, tips dark; radial spines 30–60, in 2–3 superimposed ranks, 6–10(20) mm. Flower: 25 mm, 25–35 mm diam; outer perianth parts long-fringed; inner perianth parts 20–28, pink or rose-purple to lavender. Fruit: 15–32 mm, cylindric in age. Seed: aril corky, tan, >= 1/2 seed length.
2n=22. Sandy hills, valleys, plains, creosote-bush scrub; 130–1400 m. Desert; to Utah, Arizona, northern Mexico. Apr [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii
Next taxon: Opuntia
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 8 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Mammillaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=32702, accessed on Mar 8 2014
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