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MORACEAE MULBERRY FAMILY

Alan T. Whittemore & Elizabeth McClintock

[Perennial herb] shrub, [vine] tree, generally with milky juice; monoecious or dioecious. Leaf: alternate [opposite], petioled, generally simple, entire to lobed, evergreen or deciduous; stipules present. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, head, or flowers enclosed in thick receptacle, axillary. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, small, ± radial; sepals generally 4, free or fused at base; petals 0; stamens generally 4, opposite sepals; ovary generally superior, 1-chambered, style simple or 2-parted. Fruit: achenes many within fleshy calyces or surrounded by fleshy inflorescence receptacle.
37 genera, 1100 species: tropics, subtropics, some temperate; many cultivated (Ficus, fig; Artocarpus, breadfruit, jackfruit; Morus, mulberry). Insect- or wind-pollinated. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Moraceae

MACLURA OSAGE ORANGE
Tree, thorny; dioecious. Stem: buds scaly; stipule scars obscure, not encircling stem. Leaf: alternate, or clustered with inflorescences, entire, deciduous; major veins pinnate. Inflorescence: ± erect, spheric; staminate an umbel or umbel-like raceme, > 1 per axil, peduncled; pistillate a head, 1 per axil, sessile. Pistillate flower: style simple. Fruit: spheric, bumpy, of many achenes within fleshy calyces, yellow-green [red].
± 12 species: warm parts of America, Africa, Asia, Australia. (William McClure, American geologist, 1760–1840) Wind-pollinated.

M. pomifera (Raf.) C.K. Schneid.
NATURALIZED
Plant to 20 m; thorns to 3 cm. Leaf: petiole 1–4 cm; blade 3–14 cm, ovate to lance-oblong, dark green, sparsely soft-hairy. Fruit: 9–15 cm diam, yellow-green, densely irregularly warty.
Streambanks, disturbed areas; < 440 m. Great Central Valley, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges; native to south-central United States. Widely planted; fruit inedible. Much less thorny with age. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Fruits fall unripe with the seeds still immature, the fruit then ripening on the ground and the seed maturing over the next several months.

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Next taxon: Morus

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Maclura, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=32435, accessed on Oct 30 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Maclura pomifera Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.