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MYRSINACEAE MYRSINE FAMILY

Anita F. Cholewa

Annual, perennial herb, [shrub, tree], glabrous or occasionally hairy, sometimes glandular, resin canals sometimes obvious as dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits. Leaf: cauline, simple, alternate, opposite, subopposite, or whorled; stipules 0; petioled or not. Inflorescence: axillary, raceme, [panicle, umbel] or flowers 1 [or in whorls]. Flower: bisexual, radial; parts in 4s to 9s; calyx deeply lobed, generally green (petal-like); corolla (0) or lobes generally spreading; stamens epipetalous (or not if corolla 0), opposite corolla lobes, filaments united (or free) just distal to point of attachment to corolla, staminodes 0 [present]; ovary superior, 1-chambered, placenta free-central, style 1, stigma generally head-like. Fruit: capsule, circumscissile or 5–6-valved [drupe, drupe-like]. Seed: [1]–many.
± 35 genera, 800 species: especially tropics, subtropics; some ornamental. [Lens et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:163–183] Based on molecular evidence, non-rosette terrestrial members of Primulaceae as treated in TJM (1993) removed to Myrsinaceae. Based on phylogenetic research, all California members of Myrsinaceae have been transferred to Lysimachia (Manns & Anderberg 2009 Willdenowia 39:49–54 and Cholewa 2014 Phytoneuron 2014–28: 1–2), as reflected in this revised treatment. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Källersjö et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1325–1341; Oberprieler & Hellwig 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237: 75–85; Stähl & Anderberg, in Kubitzki et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 6: 266–281]
Unabridged note: Recent molecular work has redefined Ericales. Non-rosette, terrestrial members of Primulaceae s.l. are now widely treated in Myrsinoideae or Myrsinaceae, which are further characterized by synapomorphies of dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers, short corolla tubes, seeds immersed in the placenta, and – for woody members – wood lacking rays or with only multiseriate rays. Primulaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae, and Maesaceae (a recent segregate of tropical trees) constitute a closely related, monophyletic group. Lysimachia has been recognized (even by Linnaeus) as a rather complex group with close affinities to other genera (Glaux, for instance, has been shown to be an apetalous sp. of Lysimachia). Phylogenetic research (by Arne A. Anderberg and colleagues in Europe) on this and related genera indicated that they were actually specialized taxa that had evolved within Lysimachia, so that all California members of Myrsinaceae now have been transferred to Lysimachia (Manns & Anderberg 2009 Willdenowia 39:49–54 and Cholewa 2014 Phytoneuron 2014–28: 1–2), as reflected in this revised treatment that now includes Lysimachia arvensis, Lysimachia europaea, Lysimachia latifolia, Lysimachia maritima, and Lysimachia minima.

LYSIMACHIA LOOSESTRIFE
Glabrous, glandular, or hairy. Leaf: linear, lanceolate or elliptic to widely ovate, generally entire. Flower: parts in 4s to 9s, generally in 5s to 7s; corolla present or not; filaments free or fused at base. Fruit: 5–6-valved or circumscissile, ± spheric or ± ovoid.
170 species: generally northern temperate. (Greek: loose dagger)
Unabridged references: [Hao et al. 2004 Molec Phylogen Evol 31:323–339]

Key to Lysimachia

L. thyrsiflora L. TUFTED LOOSESTRIFE
NATIVE
Perennial herb; resin canals obvious. Stem: erect, 30–80 cm, unbranched, glabrous or distally hairy. Leaf: opposite, subopposite, or whorled, often smaller and early deciduous proximally on stem; blade 5–12 cm, lanceolate or elliptic; petiole 0 or present. Inflorescence: flowers in tight racemes in leaf axils, peduncles << subtending leaves. Flower: calyx lobes 5–7(9), 1–4 mm; corolla yellow, lobes 5–7(9), 3–5 mm, linear; stamens 5–7(9), filaments free or united proximally. Fruit: 5–6-valved, >= calyx, ± ovoid.
2n=40,54. Wet places; 800–1300 m. Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills (Calaveras Co.), n High Sierra Nevada (Plumas Co.), Modoc Plateau; to Alaska, eastern North America, Eurasia. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lysimachia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=32389, accessed on Dec 25 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lysimachia thyrsiflora Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.