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SOLANACEAE NIGHTSHADE FAMILY

Michael H. Nee

Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla ± radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2–5-chambered.
75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially ± tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); many TOXIC. [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum. Koeltz Scientific Books] Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum: The Genera of Solanaceae Illustrated, Arranged According to a New System by A.T. Hunziker. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany]

Key to Solanaceae

LYCIUM BOX-THORN, WOLFBERRY
Shrub 1–4 m, generally with thorns, glabrous, hairy, or glandular-hairy. Leaf: alternate, clustered or not, entire, small, fleshy, generally ± flat to elliptic in ×-section. Inflorescence: clusters; flowers 1–several. Flower: calyx cylindric to bell-shaped, lobes 2–5; corolla funnel- or bell-shaped, ± white, ± green, or ± purple, lobes 4–5; stamens attached at various levels. Fruit: berry, 2-chambered, fleshy [dry]. Seed: 2–many.
± 100 species: warm, dry areas worldwide. (Latin: Lycia, ancient country of Asia Minor)
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1932 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 19:179–374]

Key to Lycium

L. cooperi A. Gray
NATIVE
Glandular-puberulent; branches rigidly ascending to erect, leafy. Leaf: 1–3 cm, oblanceolate to obovate. Flower: calyx 8–15 mm, narrowly bell-shaped, lobes 4–5, 1.5–3 mm, 1/2 to = tube; corolla narrowly funnel-shaped, green-white, lavender-tinged or -veined, abaxially glabrous or puberulent, tube 9–12 mm, lobes ovate-triangular; stamens ± exserted, attached ± at tube middle. Fruit: 5–9 mm, yellow to orange, with 2 cross-grooves above middle. Seed: several.
Sandy to rocky flats, washes; < 2000 m. High Sierra Nevada (e slope), s San Joaquin Valley, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert; to Utah, Arizona. Mar–May [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Lycium californicum
Next taxon: Lycium fremontii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lycium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=32210, accessed on Sep 19 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lycium cooperi Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.