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Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

Key to Onagraceae


Peter C. Hoch & Brenda J. Grewell

Annual to subshrub or emergent aquatic, often floating, rooting at nodes. Leaf: alternate to opposite. Inflorescence: spike; flowers 1 per bract. Flower: radial; hypanthium 0; sepals 4–5(7), persistent; petals (0)4–5(7), white to yellow; stamens 4 or 10(12), pollen generally shed singly (in California); stigma club-shaped to spheric. Fruit: irregularly dehiscing; wall thick or thin. Seed: free or embedded in woody piece of fruit wall.
82 species: ± worldwide. (C.G. Ludwig, German botanist, physician, 1709–1773) [Raven 1963 Reinwardtia 6:327–427] Many polyploids.

Key to Ludwigia

L. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Zardini et al. URUGUAYAN PRIMROSE-WILLOW
Perennial herb, subshrub, emergent aquatic, 3–20(40) dm, matted, with thick white spongy roots at floating nodes, creeping to erect on land, often climbing on other plants. Stem: prostrate to erect, flower shoot erect, simple or branched distally, glabrous (floating) to spreading-hairy (erect). Leaf: alternate, 3–11(15) cm; petiole (0)5–30(56) mm; blade narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate or widely obovate, entire, ± glabrous, tip generally mucronate. Inflorescence: bracts lanceolate to lance-ovate; pedicel (9)13–25(85) mm. Flower: sepals 5(6), 12–19 mm; petals 5(6), 18–29 mm; stamens 10(12) in 2 unequal sets, anthers 1.5–4.5 mm. Fruit: reflexed, falling with pedicel; 14–26 mm, cylindric, tapered to pedicel, ± spreading-hairy. Seed: 1.2–1.5 mm, embedded in woody inner fruit wall.
2n=80. Lake margins, wetlands; < 300 m. North Coast, s Outer North Coast Ranges, Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast; Oregon, Washington, southeastern United States (native?), Central America, southern South America, Europe. [Jussiaea uruguayensis Cambess., in part; Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz] Invasive weed. May–Dec {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Ludwigia hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Zardini, H. Gu, & P.H. Raven

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Next taxon: Ludwigia palustris


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ludwigia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ludwigia hexapetala Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.