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ONAGRACEAE EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

Key to Onagraceae

LUDWIGIA FALSE LOOSESTRIFE, WATER PRIMROSE

Peter C. Hoch & Brenda J. Grewell

Annual to subshrub or emergent aquatic, often floating, rooting at nodes. Leaf: alternate to opposite. Inflorescence: spike; flowers 1 per bract. Flower: radial; hypanthium 0; sepals 4–5(7), persistent; petals (0)4–5(7), white to yellow; stamens 4 or 10(12), pollen generally shed singly (in California); stigma club-shaped to spheric. Fruit: irregularly dehiscing; wall thick or thin. Seed: free or embedded in woody piece of fruit wall.
82 species: ± worldwide. (C.G. Ludwig, German botanist, physician, 1709–1773) [Raven 1963 Reinwardtia 6:327–427] Many polyploids.

Key to Ludwigia

L. palustris (L.) Elliott
NATIVE
Perennial herb 1–5 dm, matted. Stem: prostrate or ascending, rooting at nodes, well branched, ± glabrous. Leaf: opposite, < 5 cm; blade narrowly elliptic to subovate, entire, ± glabrous. Inflorescence: pedicel 0–0.5 mm. Flower: sepals 4, 1.1–2 mm; petals 0; stamens 4, anthers 0.2–0.4 mm; ovary stripes 4, green. Fruit: erect, 1.5–5 mm, ± oblong, minutely strigose. Seed: 0.5–0.7 mm, free from fruit wall.
2n=16. Roadside ditches, wet meadows, pond margins; < 1000 m. w Northwestern California, n Sierra Nevada, c High Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast; to British Columbia, eastern United States, Central America, northern South America; introduced ± worldwide. Highly variable, often weedy. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Ludwigia palustris var. americana (DC.) Fernald & Griscom; Ludwigia palustris var. pacifica Fernald & Griscom]

Previous taxon: Ludwigia hexapetala
Next taxon: Ludwigia peploides

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ludwigia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31651, accessed on Oct 25 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ludwigia palustris Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.