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Ronald L. Hartman & Richard K. Rabeler, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb; rarely dioecious (Silene), taprooted or rhizome generally slender. Leaf: simple, generally opposite (subwhorled), entire, pairs at nodes often ± connected at bases; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally open; flowers 1–many; involucre generally 0 (present in Dianthus, Petrorhagia). Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium often present but obscure; sepals (4)5, ± free or fused into a tube, margins generally scarious, more so on inner 2 or not, tube generally not scarious, awns generally 0; petals (4)5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, limb expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, limb generally without scale-like appendages adaxially, generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries 0 or 5; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 with 0 branches or 1 with 2–3 branches. Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely ± dehiscent), generally sessile. Seed: appendage generally 0 (present in Moehringia).
83 or 89 genera, 3000 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temperate northern hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Sagina, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria). [Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:3–215] Apetalous Caryophyllaceae can also be keyed in Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:5–8. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Caryophyllaceae

Annual, erect to prostrate, taprooted. Leaf: stipules 0.4–1.5 mm, bristle-like, scarious, entire, ± white; blade awl-like to oblong; vein 0–1. Inflorescence: axillary, sessile; flowers 1–2. Flower: sepals 5, 2.7–6 mm, ± free, ± lanceolate, glandular-hairy; petals 0 or vestigial; stamens 3–5; styles 3, < 0.1 mm. Fruit: capsule, 1.5–3.7 mm, lanceoloid to ovoid; valves 3, ± recurved at tip. Seed: many, tan with red-brown band on curved edge.
7 species: North America, Mediterranean, southwestern Asia. (P. Loefling, Swedish botanist, explorer, 1729–1756) [Hartman & Rabeler 2005 FNANM 5:26–27]

Plant 1–12 cm, much-branched at base, glandular-hairy, ± fleshy. Stem: stiff. Leaf: blade 2–7 mm, erect to ± recurved, bristly; bases generally fused into a short scarious sheath; tip blunt to spine-tipped. Flower: cleistogamous; sepals awned, becoming hardened, margin often scarious, lateral spurs often present, bristly. Fruit: 0.5–0.8 × sepals, 3-angled. Seed: 0.4–0.7 mm, minutely papillate on flat edge.
Sand, gravel of hills, mesas, dunes, disturbed areas; < 1200 m. Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Mojave Desert; to Oregon, Nebraska, Arkansas, Texas, northern Baja California. [Loeflingia pusilla Curran; Loeflingia squarrosa subsp. artemisiarum Barneby & Twisselmann; Loeflingia squarrosa subsp. squarosa; Loeflingia squarrosa var. artemisiarum (Barneby & Twisselm.) Dorn; Loeflingia squarrosa var. squarrosa] Spring–summer [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 24 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Loeflingia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 24 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Loeflingia squarrosa Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.