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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual, perennial herb, hairy, taprooted, red root dye present or not. Stem: erect. Leaf: generally cauline, ± sessile, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cyme or flowers 1 in upper leaf axils; bracts throughout. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit, lobes equal; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, generally ± yellow (± white), tube > lobes, appendages present or 0; style entire. Fruit: nutlets 1–4, 2.5–6+ mm, ovoid, plump, smooth to pitted or wrinkled, attachment scar basal.Key to Lithospermum
75 species: worldwide, generally temperate, mountains. (Greek: stone seed) Heterostylous or not; cleistogamous flowers present or 0.
Unabridged references: [Baker 1961 Rhodora 63:229–235, Ralston 1993 Ph.D. Dissertation Northern Arizona Univ]
Perennial herb; hairs ± spreading; caudex ± woody; red root dye 0. Stem: 1–several, 2–5 dm, clustered, ± unbranched. Leaf: many, crowded; blade 3–8 cm, lanceolate to linear. Inflorescence: cymes many, dense, in upper leaf axils; pedicels 1–3 mm, ± erect in fruit. Flower: corolla 9–12 mm, 1–1.5 × calyx, 7–13 mm diam, ± salverform, pale- to green-yellow, lobes entire, appendages 0. Fruit: nutlet 5–6+ mm, wide-ovoid, ± attenuate into stout tip, smooth, shiny, ± white to pale brown.
2n=24. Open, dry slopes, plains, sagebrush steppe, conifer forest, chaparral; (750)1200–1800 m. High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau; northwestern North America. Homostylous; cleistogamous flowers 0. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Lithospermum incisum
Next taxon: Mertensia
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lithospermum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31272, accessed on May 25 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lithospermum ruderale|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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