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SAXIFRAGACEAE SAXIFRAGE FAMILY

Michael S. Park & Patrick E. Elvander, except as noted

Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy. Stem: often ± leafy on proximal 1/2, rarely trailing and leafy throughout. Leaf: generally simple, basal and/or cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally ± scapose. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens 3, [4], 5, 8, or 10; pistils 1 (carpels ± fused, ovary lobed, chambers 1 or 2, placentas generally 2(3), axile or parietal or occasionally proximally axile and distally marginal in ovary lobes) or 2 (carpels free, placentas marginal), ovary nearly superior to inferior, occasionally more superior in fruit, styles generally 2(3). Fruit: capsule (generally 2(3)-beaked, valves generally 2(3), generally equal) or 2 follicles. Seed: generally many, small.
± 30 genera, 600 species: especially northern temperate, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia, Darmera, Heuchera, Saxifraga, Tellima, Tolmiea). [Soltis et al. 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:669–693; Okuyama et al. 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 46:560–575] California Mitella moved to Mitellastra, Ozomelis, Pectiantia; Suksdorfia ranunculifolia to Hemieva. Parnassia moved to Parnassiaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]

Key to Saxifragaceae

LITHOPHRAGMA WOODLAND STAR
Rhizome slender, scaleless, bearing bulblets. Leaf: basal and cauline, reduced distally on stem, generally alternate, increasingly more deeply lobed from younger basal to distal cauline; blade round, base cordate to reniform, ± lobed, generally toothed. Inflorescence: raceme; bracts scale-like or 0. Flower: hypanthium generally partly fused to ovary; petals generally lobed or toothed; stamens 10; pistil 1, ovary superior to ± inferior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, 3-beaked, valves 3.
12 species: western North America. (Greek: rock hedge, from habitats) [Kuzoff et al. 1999 Syst Bot 24:598–615]
Unabridged references: [Taylor 1965 U Calif Publs Bot 37:1–122]
Unabridged note: Generic names ending in -phragma are considered of neuter, not feminine, gender.

Key to Lithophragma

L. maximum Bacig. SAN CLEMENTE ISLAND WOODLAND STAR
NATIVE
Plant 40–60 cm. Leaf: basal blade 3-parted, leaflets lobed, teeth sharp. Inflorescence: flowers 6–25; pedicel ± 1 mm. Flower: hypanthium hemispheric to bell-shaped, part fused to ovary generally < free part; petals 3.5–4.5 mm, ovate, ± 5-lobed, white; ovary < 1/2 inferior. Seed: spiny.
Steep, moist, n-facing canyon slopes; < 400 m. s Channel Islands (San Clemente Island). Mar–May [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

Previous taxon: Lithophragma heterophyllum
Next taxon: Lithophragma parviflorum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lithophragma, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31245, accessed on Nov 22 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lithophragma maximum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.