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SAXIFRAGACEAE SAXIFRAGE FAMILY

Michael S. Park & Patrick E. Elvander, except as noted

Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy. Stem: often ± leafy on proximal 1/2, rarely trailing and leafy throughout. Leaf: generally simple, basal and/or cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally ± scapose. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens 3, [4], 5, 8, or 10; pistils 1 (carpels ± fused, ovary lobed, chambers 1 or 2, placentas generally 2(3), axile or parietal or occasionally proximally axile and distally marginal in ovary lobes) or 2 (carpels free, placentas marginal), ovary nearly superior to inferior, occasionally more superior in fruit, styles generally 2(3). Fruit: capsule (generally 2(3)-beaked, valves generally 2(3), generally equal) or 2 follicles. Seed: generally many, small.
± 30 genera, 600 species: especially northern temperate, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia, Darmera, Heuchera, Saxifraga, Tellima, Tolmiea). [Soltis et al. 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:669–693; Okuyama et al. 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 46:560–575] California Mitella moved to Mitellastra, Ozomelis, Pectiantia; Suksdorfia ranunculifolia to Hemieva. Parnassia moved to Parnassiaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]

Key to Saxifragaceae

LITHOPHRAGMA WOODLAND STAR
Rhizome slender, scaleless, bearing bulblets. Leaf: basal and cauline, reduced distally on stem, generally alternate, increasingly more deeply lobed from younger basal to distal cauline; blade round, base cordate to reniform, ± lobed, generally toothed. Inflorescence: raceme; bracts scale-like or 0. Flower: hypanthium generally partly fused to ovary; petals generally lobed or toothed; stamens 10; pistil 1, ovary superior to ± inferior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, 3-beaked, valves 3.
12 species: western North America. (Greek: rock hedge, from habitats) [Kuzoff et al. 1999 Syst Bot 24:598–615]
Unabridged references: [Taylor 1965 U Calif Publs Bot 37:1–122]
Unabridged note: Generic names ending in -phragma are considered of neuter, not feminine, gender.

Key to Lithophragma

L. cymbalaria Torr. & A. Gray
NATIVE
Plant 10–35 cm. Leaf: basal blade shallowly 3-lobed, teeth 0; cauline 2, opposite. Inflorescence: flowers 2–8; pedicel 4–10 mm. Flower: hypanthium ± long-obconic, part fused to ovary ± = free part; petals 4–8 mm, ovate-elliptic, entire to shallowly toothed, white; ovary ± 1/2-inferior. Seed: spiny.
2n=14+. Shady, moist areas; < 1200(2500) m. San Joaquin Valley (Antioch), San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, South Coast/Western Transverse Ranges (Ventura Co.), n Channel Islands, Western Transverse Ranges. Mar–May [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Lithophragma campanulatum
Next taxon: Lithophragma glabrum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 29 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lithophragma, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31241, accessed on Jul 29 2014

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click for enlargement Lithophragma cymbalaria
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1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Bioregions in which Lithophragma cymbalaria occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.