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Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy. Stem: often ± leafy on proximal 1/2, rarely trailing and leafy throughout. Leaf: generally simple, basal and/or cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally ± scapose. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens 3, , 5, 8, or 10; pistils 1 (carpels ± fused, ovary lobed, chambers 1 or 2, placentas generally 2(3), axile or parietal or occasionally proximally axile and distally marginal in ovary lobes) or 2 (carpels free, placentas marginal), ovary nearly superior to inferior, occasionally more superior in fruit, styles generally 2(3). Fruit: capsule (generally 2(3)-beaked, valves generally 2(3), generally equal) or 2 follicles. Seed: generally many, small.
± 30 genera, 600 species: especially northern temperate, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia, Darmera, Heuchera, Saxifraga, Tellima, Tolmiea). [Soltis et al. 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:669–693; Okuyama et al. 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 46:560–575] California Mitella moved to Mitellastra, Ozomelis, Pectiantia; Suksdorfia ranunculifolia to Hemieva. Parnassia moved to Parnassiaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]
Key to Saxifragaceae
Rhizome slender, scaleless, bearing bulblets. Leaf: basal and cauline, reduced distally on stem, generally alternate, increasingly more deeply lobed from younger basal to distal cauline; blade round, base cordate to reniform, ± lobed, generally toothed. Inflorescence: raceme; bracts scale-like or 0. Flower: hypanthium generally partly fused to ovary; petals generally lobed or toothed; stamens 10; pistil 1, ovary superior to ± inferior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, 3-beaked, valves 3.Key to Lithophragma
12 species: western North America. (Greek: rock hedge, from habitats) [Kuzoff et al. 1999 Syst Bot 24:598–615]
Unabridged references: [Taylor 1965 U Calif Publs Bot 37:1–122]
Unabridged note: Generic names ending in -phragma are considered of neuter, not feminine, gender.
Plant 10–60 cm. Leaf: basal blade ± 3–5-lobed, teeth ± sharp-tipped. Inflorescence: flowers 3–15; pedicel 3–10 mm. Flower: hypanthium obconic, ± inflated above, part fused to ovary ± = free part; petals 5–13 mm, ovate-elliptic, 3-lobed at tip, white; ovary > 1/2-inferior. Seed: smooth.
2n=14,21,28,35. Open, grassy slopes; < 2000 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, c Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley (Sutter Buttes), n San Joaquin Valley (Antioch), n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, South Coast (inland), s Channel Islands, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges; southwestern Oregon, Baja California. [Lithophragma affine subsp. mixtum R.L. Taylor; Lithophragma tripartitum (Greene) Greene] Variable. Many forms, especially inland and in southern California, approaching and intergrading with Lithophragma parviflorum. Mar–Apr [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Lithophragma
Next taxon: Lithophragma bolanderi
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lithophragma, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31236, accessed on Dec 1 2015
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© 2008 Neal Kramer
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lithophragma affine|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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