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Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, 2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Plantaginaceae
Annual [perennial herb]. Stem: openly branched, 4-angled. Leaf: cauline, opposite, entire to finely dentate. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils. Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip > upper, spreading, 3-lobed, corolla tube cylindric, > lobes, throat with 2 yellow, hairy ridges; fertile stamens 2 (lower stamen pair antherless, forming corolla throat ridges and with free, forked, filament-like tips), anther sacs of each stamen touching, not parallel; stigmas 2, flat.
± 100 species: temperate and tropical North America to Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, South America. (Franz B. von Lindern, German physician & botanist, 1682–1755) [Lewis 2000 Castanea 65:93–122; Rahmanzadeh et al. 2005 Plant Biol 7:67–78] Recently treated in Linderniaceae.
Plant glabrous or sparsely and minutely stalked-glandular. Stem: < 27 cm [38 cm], spreading to erect, often rooting at proximal nodes. Leaf: 1–37 mm, sessile, lanceolate to ovate, tapered to round-clasping at base. Inflorescence: pedicel 0.5–28 mm. Flower: calyx lobed nearly to base, < 7 mm, lobes linear; corolla 7–10 mm, white to ± blue or lavender. Fruit: < or > sepals. Seed: length 1.5–3 × width, yellow to golden-yellow.
Wet meadows, pond borders, lakes and streams; < 1700 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada; to Washington, southern Canada, eastern United States (eastern of Rocky Mountains); Mexico to South America, Europe, Asia. [Lindernia dubia var. anagallidea (Michx.) Cooperr.] Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Lindernia
Next taxon: Maurandella
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 24 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lindernia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31104, accessed on May 24 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lindernia dubia|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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