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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree, generally glandular, some ± aquatic. Stem: round to square in ×-section. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0 (present in Limosella). Inflorescence: spike to panicle (head-like), generally bracted, or flowers 1–4 in axils. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx lobes 4–5; corolla bilateral to radial, lobes 4–5; stamens epipetalous, 4–5, 5th a staminode in Scrophularia; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal, or drupe-like.
± 65 genera, 1700 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (Verbascum). [Olmstead et al. 2001 Amer J Bot 88:348–361] Other taxa moved to Plantaginaceae (Antirrhinum, Bacopa, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Dopatrium, Gambelia, Gratiola, Hebe, Holmgrenanthe, Keckiella, Kickxia, Limnophila, Linaria, Lindernia, Maurandella, Mohavea, Nothochelone, Penstemon, Pseudorontium, Stemodia, Synthyris, Tonella, Veronica), Orobanchaceae (Bellardia, Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Parentucellia, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus). —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Albach et al. 2005 Amer J Bot 92:297–315]
Key to Scrophulariaceae
Annual, stoloned, occasionally partly submersed. Leaf: basal, erect; stipules generally present; petioles present or not. Inflorescence: scapose; flower 1. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes 5, ovate, acute; corolla radial, bell-shaped, lobes 5, adaxially sparsely papillate; stamens 4; style generally ± terminal, stigmas generally fused, head-like. Fruit: elliptic to spheric, chambers 2 proximally, 1 distally. Seed: many, minute.Key to Limosella
± 15 species: worldwide. (Latin: mud seat, from habitat)
Tufted. Leaf: petiole 3–10(30) cm; blade 5–30 mm, flat, spoon-shaped to ovate; stipules 0 or sheathing leaf base, transparent. Inflorescence: pedicels << petioles, spreading in fruit. Flower: calyx lobes 2 × tube; corolla ± 2 mm, white to ± pink, outside occasionally blue, lobes acute; stamens attached at different levels; style 0.2–0.4 mm, stout, ± curved, stigma ± 2-lobed. Fruit: 3–5 mm, elliptic to spheric.
2n=40. Wet, muddy, periodically flooded places, fresh water; < 3200 m. Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau; to Alaska, eastern North America; Eurasia. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Limosella acaulis
Next taxon: Limosella australis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 9 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Limosella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31028, accessed on Mar 9 2014
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© 2011 Anthony Baniaga
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