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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree, generally glandular, some ± aquatic. Stem: round to square in ×-section. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0 (present in Limosella). Inflorescence: spike to panicle (head-like), generally bracted, or flowers 1–4 in axils. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx lobes 4–5; corolla bilateral to radial, lobes 4–5; stamens epipetalous, 4–5, 5th a staminode in Scrophularia; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal, or drupe-like.
± 65 genera, 1700 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (Verbascum). [Olmstead et al. 2001 Amer J Bot 88:348–361] Other taxa moved to Plantaginaceae (Antirrhinum, Bacopa, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Dopatrium, Gambelia, Gratiola, Hebe, Holmgrenanthe, Keckiella, Kickxia, Limnophila, Linaria, Lindernia, Maurandella, Mohavea, Nothochelone, Penstemon, Pseudorontium, Stemodia, Synthyris, Tonella, Veronica), Orobanchaceae (Bellardia, Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Parentucellia, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus). —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Albach et al. 2005 Amer J Bot 92:297–315]
Key to Scrophulariaceae
Annual, stoloned, occasionally partly submersed. Leaf: basal, erect; stipules generally present; petioles present or not. Inflorescence: scapose; flower 1. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes 5, ovate, acute; corolla radial, bell-shaped, lobes 5, adaxially sparsely papillate; stamens 4; style generally ± terminal, stigmas generally fused, head-like. Fruit: elliptic to spheric, chambers 2 proximally, 1 distally. Seed: many, minute.Key to Limosella
± 15 species: worldwide. (Latin: mud seat, from habitat)
Cespitose, generally mat-forming. Leaf: 1–6 cm, 0.5–2 mm wide, flat, linear to ± spoon-shaped; stipules generally ear-shaped, transparent; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: pedicels < 2/3 leaf length, spreading in fruit. Flower: calyx lobes ± = tube; corolla 2–3 mm, white to lavender, lobes rounded; stamens attached at 1 level; style 0.2–0.7 mm, erect to ± curved. Fruit: 3–5 mm, spheric.
Wet, muddy places, generally fresh water; < 3300 m. Klamath Ranges, High Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province; to New Mexico, Mexico. May–Oct [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Limosella
Next taxon: Limosella aquatica
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Limosella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31027, accessed on Apr 24 2014
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© 2000 Gary A. Monroe
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