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Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Liliaceae
Plant from bulb-like, scaly rhizomes (called bulbs here for brevity), generally not clonal, ± glabrous; bulb scale segments 2–many, if segmented. Stem: erect. Leaf: > 12, ± whorled (often some alternate), sessile, spreading with drooping tips to ascending, generally ± elliptic; veins generally 3; stipule 0. Inflorescence: flowers axillary, 1–40+; bracts generally 2 per flower. Flower: generally radial, generally bell- or funnel-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± lanceolate, base narrowed, generally red-purple-spotted adaxially; stamens 6, generally exceeding to much exceeding perianth, anthers attached at middle (measures are after dehiscence); style 1, stigma 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, erect, generally ± smooth, loculicidal. Seed: many, flat, in 6 stacks.Key to Lilium
± 100 species: northern temperate, tropical mountains of eastern Asia. (Greek: lily) Variable, hybridization common. Many species declining from habitat destruction, collecting; few thrive in gardens. Generally flowers May–Aug.
Unabridged references: [Skinner 1988 Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ]
Plant < 2.6 m, often glaucous; bulb oblique-elongate to ± erect-ovoid, scales unsegmented, 2-segmented, or indistinctly 2(3)-segmented, longest 3.3–12 cm. Leaf: in 1–9(14) whorls, spreading to ascending, ± clasping stem or not, 3–13 cm, generally oblanceolate; margin wavy or not. Inflorescence: flowers 1–33, nodding to ascending. Flower: generally ± bilateral, ± funnel-shaped, strongly fragrant; perianth parts generally 6.2–11.3 cm (inner wider, strongly oblanceolate), recurved in distal 25–33%, white, turning deep pink or not, magenta spots minute; stamens ± exceeding perianth, filaments ± parallel, anthers 8–15 mm, off-white or cream, pollen yellow or cream; pistil 7.5–10.4 cm. Fruit: 2.7–5.8 cm. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Lilium washingtonianum subsp. purpurascens replaces the Sierran Lilium washingtonianum subsp. washingtonianum near Mount Shasta in Siskiyou Co., and extends western through Klamath Mountains and northern through Cascades to Mt. Hood in Clackamas Co., Oregon.
Previous taxon: Lilium rubescens
Next taxon: Lilium washingtonianum subsp. purpurascens
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 31 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lilium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=30965, accessed on Mar 31 2015
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Jo-Ann Ordano © 2005 California Academy of Sciences
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lilium washingtonianum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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