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LILIACEAE LILY FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Liliaceae

LILIUM LILY

Mark W. Skinner

Plant from bulb-like, scaly rhizomes (called bulbs here for brevity), generally not clonal, ± glabrous; bulb scale segments 2–many, if segmented. Stem: erect. Leaf: > 12, ± whorled (often some alternate), sessile, spreading with drooping tips to ascending, generally ± elliptic; veins generally 3; stipule 0. Inflorescence: flowers axillary, 1–40+; bracts generally 2 per flower. Flower: generally radial, generally bell- or funnel-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± lanceolate, base narrowed, generally red-purple-spotted adaxially; stamens 6, generally exceeding to much exceeding perianth, anthers attached at middle (measures are after dehiscence); style 1, stigma 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, erect, generally ± smooth, loculicidal. Seed: many, flat, in 6 stacks.
n=12.
± 100 species: northern temperate, tropical mountains of eastern Asia. (Greek: lily) Variable, hybridization common. Many species declining from habitat destruction, collecting; few thrive in gardens. Generally flowers May–Aug.
Unabridged references: [Skinner 1988 Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ]

Key to Lilium

L. columbianum Leichtlin COLUMBIA LILY
NATIVE
Plant < 1.7 m, glaucous or not; bulb erect-ovoid to oblique-elongate, scales (1)2–3(4–5)-segmented, longest 3–7.3 cm. Leaf: in 1–9 whorls, generally ascending, 1.5–16 cm, ± oblanceolate to ± obovate or not; margin generally wavy. Inflorescence: flowers 1–25(45), pendent to nodding. Flower: widely bell-shaped, not fragrant; perianth parts 3.4–7.1 cm, reflexed in distal 50–60%, orange (often ± red abaxially); stamens ± exceeding perianth, filaments spreading, anthers 5–13 mm, ± yellow, pollen orange or yellow; pistil 2.4–3.7 cm. Fruit: 2–5.4 cm.
Dry scrub, coastal prairie, gaps and roadsides in conifer forest especially along coast; < 1300 m. nw Northwestern California; to British Columbia, Idaho. Variable. Hybridizes with Lilium pardalinum subsp. vollmeri, Lilium pardalinum subsp. wigginsii; possibly with Lilium kelloggii in Del Norte Co. along Highway 199 near Oregon border. Jun–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Variable. In California pollinated mostly by Selasphorus hummingbirds. To the northern flowers smaller, stamens more exserted, and Papilio swallowtails become more important pollinators. Hybridizes with Lilium pardalinum subsp. vollmeri and Lilium pardalinum subsp. wigginsii, often with Lilium occidentale in Oregon. May hybridize with Lilium kelloggii in Del Norte Co. along Highway 199 near OR border.

Previous taxon: Lilium bolanderi
Next taxon: Lilium humboldtii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lilium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=30931, accessed on Nov 23 2014

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click for enlargement Lilium columbianum
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1995 Gary A. Monroe

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lilium columbianum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.