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LILIACEAE LILY FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Liliaceae

LILIUM LILY

Mark W. Skinner

Plant from bulb-like, scaly rhizomes (called bulbs here for brevity), generally not clonal, ± glabrous; bulb scale segments 2–many, if segmented. Stem: erect. Leaf: > 12, ± whorled (often some alternate), sessile, spreading with drooping tips to ascending, generally ± elliptic; veins generally 3; stipule 0. Inflorescence: flowers axillary, 1–40+; bracts generally 2 per flower. Flower: generally radial, generally bell- or funnel-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± lanceolate, base narrowed, generally red-purple-spotted adaxially; stamens 6, anthers attached at middle (measures are after dehiscence); style 1, stigma 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, erect, generally ± smooth, loculicidal. Seed: many, flat, in 6 stacks.
n=12.
± 100 species: northern temperate, tropical mountains of eastern Asia. (Greek: lily) Variable, hybridization common. Many species declining from habitat destruction, collecting; few thrive in gardens. Generally flowers May–Aug.
Unabridged references: [Skinner 1988 Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ]

Key to Lilium

L. bolanderi S. Watson BOLANDER'S LILY
NATIVE
Plant < 1.1 m, glaucous; bulb erect, ± ovoid, scales unsegmented, longest 3–6 cm. Leaf: in 2–6 whorls, ± ascending, often cupping stem, 1.8–7 cm, generally ± obovate or ± oblanceolate, generally distinctly glaucous; margin generally wavy. Inflorescence: flowers 1–9, nodding to spreading. Flower: narrowly bell-shaped, not fragrant; perianth parts 3–4.7 cm, ± recurved in distal 20–40%, red or magenta (salmon, pale yellow), adaxially basal 30–50% often ± yellow; stamens <= perianth, filaments ± parallel, anthers 3–8 mm, ± red or magenta, pollen red-brown, orange, or yellow; pistil 2–3.5 cm. Fruit: 2–4 cm.
Serpentine soil in chaparral, conifer forest, generally with Xerophyllum; 150–1500 m. Klamath Ranges; southwestern Oregon. Hybridizes with Lilium pardalinum, Lilium washingtonianum subsp. purpurascens, Lilium rubescens. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 17 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Lilium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=30926, accessed on Apr 17 2014

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click for enlargement Lilium bolanderi
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© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.