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Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Apiaceae
Perennial herb, taprooted, glabrous to minutely scabrous. Stem: erect, leafy, conspicuously fibrous at base, generally branched. Leaf: blade oblong to round, ternately or pinnately compound or dissected, leaflets oblong to obovate, entire to deeply pinnately lobed, segments linear to oblong. Inflorescence: compound umbels; bracts generally 0; bractlets 0 or inconspicuous; rays, pedicels few to many, spreading-ascending. Flower: calyx lobes minute; petals wide, white [± pink]. Fruit: oblong to elliptic, ± compressed side-to-side; ribs ± equal, thread-like to narrowly winged; oil tubes generally several per rib-interval; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face flat to concave.Key to Ligusticum
± 25 species: Eurasia, North America. (Liguria, Italy, home of related Levisticum, lovage) [Leute 1970 Ann Naturhist Mus Wien 74:457–519] Genus and species poorly defined.
Plant 6–12 dm, glabrous. Leaf: petiole 0.5–4 dm; blade 1–3 dm wide, triangular-ovate, ternate-pinnate, leaflets 1.5–4 cm, oblong to ovate, segments generally wide, obtuse, shallowly to deeply pinnately lobed; cauline leaves ± = basal, generally 2–3, distal ± sessile, occasionally paired. Inflorescence: peduncles generally whorled, terminal 1.5–4 dm, lateral generally staminate; rays generally 16–30, 2–6 cm, unequal; pedicels 5–10 mm, unequal. Fruit: 4–6 mm, oblong-ovate; ribs narrowly winged; oil tubes several per rib-interval. Seed: face concave.
Chaparral, woodland, often on serpentine; 15–1500 m. North Coast, Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada; southwestern Oregon. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Ligusticum apiifolium
Next taxon: Ligusticum grayi
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 10 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Ligusticum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=30892, accessed on Mar 10 2014
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