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Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
± 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). [Harley et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 7:167–275] Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Lamiaceae
1 sp. (Latin: like Lamium) [Stace 1989 Watsonia 17:443] Occasionally included in Lamium.
Perennial herb, ± sparsely hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect, 15–60 cm; generally stoloned at least after flower begins. Leaf: petiole 1–3 cm; blade 2–9 cm, ovate to ± round, crenate or generally coarsely toothed, generally variegated, base truncate to ± cordate, tip acute to acuminate. Inflorescence: terminal and axillary, head-like, ± sessile, 2–10-flowered. Flower: calyx 7–10 mm, lobes ± equal, generally acuminate; corolla 14–25 mm, bright yellow with ± brown spots, 2-lipped, upper lip hood-like, lower ± equally 3-lobed, middle lobe ± > laterals, triangular, entire, acute, tube > calyx, with ring of hairs within; stamens fertile, generally enclosed by upper lip, anthers generally hairy; style ± equally 2-lobed. Fruit: nutlets triangular in ×-section, tip truncate.
2n=18,36. Woodland, shady fields; < 100 m. North Coast; widespread North America; native western Europe to western Asia. Noxious weed in Washington.
Unabridged note: 3–4 subspecies recognized in Fl. Europaea.
Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Lamiastrum
Next taxon: Lamium
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 8 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Lamiastrum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=30148, accessed on Mar 8 2014
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