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ACANTHACEAE ACANTHUS FAMILY

Thomas F. Daniel, Margriet Wetherwax & Lawrence R. Heckard, except as noted

[Annual, perennial herb to] shrub, [tree], nodes generally swollen. Leaf: simple, generally opposite, entire (toothed [lobed]); stipules 0. Inflorescence: variable, with bracts, generally also bractlets. Flower: bisexual; calyx deeply (3)4–5 lobed [(sepals free)]; corolla 4–5 lobed, radial to 2-lipped; stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous, anther sacs sometimes dissimilar in size or placement; ovary superior, 4–many-ovuled, chambers 1–2, placentas axile (free central), stigmas 1–2. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, generally dehiscing explosively, valves 2. Seed: 1–4[+], each generally subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in fruit.
220 genera, 4000 species: especially tropics; some ornamental: Justicia (Beloperone, shrimp-plant), Acanthus, Thunbergia. [Daniel 1998 Proc Calif Acad Sci 50:217–256; Hilu et al. 2003 Amer J Bot 90:1758–1766; Schwarzbach & McDade 2002 Syst Bot 27:84–98] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Daniel 1984 Desert Plant 5:162–179; Daniel 1998 Proc Calif Acad Sci 50:217–256]

Key to Acanthaceae

JUSTICIA
[Annual, perennial herb] shrub. Inflorescence: generally raceme [variable]. Flower: corolla 2-lipped, tube generally >= lips, wider upward, upper lip notched or 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed; stamens 2, generally appressed to upper lip, anther sacs unequally placed on filament, opening toward lower lip, lower sac spurred. Fruit: club-shaped; stalk ± flat. Seed: 4, outlined on fruit surface [or not].
400 species: tropics, subtropics. (James Justice, Scottish horticulturist, 1698–1763) [Graham 1988 Kew Bull 43:551–624]

J. californica (Benth.) D.N. Gibson BELOPERONE, CHUPAROSA
NATIVE
Stem: < 2 m, generally leafless in flower, canescent. Leaf: blade 1–6 cm, ovate, triangular, or ± round, puberulent; petiole < 20 mm. Inflorescence: bracts < 1 cm, lance-elliptic, falling early; bractlets 2–5 mm, narrow-tapered. Flower: calyx 5–8 mm, lobes 5, lanceolate; corolla 2–4 cm, puberulent, dull scarlet (yellow), lips 1–2 cm, < tube, lobes of lower 1–4 mm. Fruit: 1.5–2 cm, canescent. Seed: 2.5–3.5 mm, ± round, mottled.
2n=28. Dry sandy or rocky soils, especially washes; < 950 m. w Peninsular Ranges (San Diego River e of Wildcat Canyon), Sonoran Desert; Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Justicia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=29815, accessed on Apr 20 2014

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click for enlargement Justicia californica
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William R. Hewlett © 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Bioregions in which Justicia californica occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.