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Shrub, tree; monoecious. Leaf: odd-(even-)1-pinnate, alternate, deciduous; stipules 0. Inflorescence: catkin, generally appearing before leaves, 1 or clustered; flowers generally 1 in bract axils. Staminate inflorescence: pendent, elongate, many-flowered, on last year's twigs. Pistillate inflorescence: erect; flowers 1–many, at tip of new twigs. Staminate flower: calyx [0 or] lobes generally 4 [2, 6]; petals 0; stamens 3–40; pistil 0 or vestigial. Pistillate flower: calyx  or lobes 4; petals 0; stamens 0; ovary 1, inferior, chamber 1 above, generally 2 below, styles 2, plumose. Fruit: nut enclosed in husk or winged nutlets.
9 genera, > 60 species: northern temperate, subtropical mountains; some ornamental, cultivated for wood, nuts (Carya hickory, pecan; Juglans walnut). [Stone 1997 FNANM 3:416–428] In Carya, Juglans, husk included in fruit diam, even though derived from involucre, calyx, and therefore not technically part of fruit. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Elias 1972 J Arnold Arbor 53: 26–51]
Key to Juglandaceae
Stem: bark smooth to furrowed in age, gray to gray-brown; twig centers chambered; buds scaly. Pistillate inflorescence: flowers 1–few; in fruit erect. Pistillate flower: styles elongate. Fruit: 1–3 unwinged nuts per inflorescence; leathery husk enclosing, not separating from each nut, not splitting.Key to Juglans
21 species: North America, temperate Asia, South America. (Latin: Jove's nut) Wood used for interior finishing, furniture; source of nuts, dye. Juglans nigra L., occasionally planted, resembles Juglans hindsii but has leaflets uniformly pubescent abaxially, nuts deeply grooved, coarsely warty.
Stem: Trunk 5–30 m. Leaf: petiole 5.5–11 cm; leaflets 5–11, 10–22 cm, elliptic to oblong-ovate, entire, generally short-acuminate (less often acute), abaxial vein axils with tufts of hairs. Fruit: 3.5–5 cm diam, nut shell ± thin, wrinkled.
Seedlings occasionally near cultivated trees; < 200 m. n Outer North Coast Ranges, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California; native to southwestern Asia. Widely cultivated for nuts. Very short-lived in California unless grafted on resistant roots of Juglans hindsii or Juglans hindsii × Juglans regia, the latter reproducing in wild vegetation near plantings. Juglans regia also crosses with Juglans californica where planted near stands of the latter sp. Further study of walnut hybrids in California needed. Apr [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Juglans hindsii
Next taxon: Pterocarya
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Juglans, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=29576, accessed on Apr 21 2014
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