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JUGLANDACEAE WALNUT FAMILY

Alan T. Whittemore

Shrub, tree; monoecious. Leaf: odd-(even-)1-pinnate, alternate, deciduous; stipules 0. Inflorescence: catkin, generally appearing before leaves, 1 or clustered; flowers generally 1 in bract axils. Staminate inflorescence: pendent, elongate, many-flowered, on last year's twigs. Pistillate inflorescence: erect; flowers 1–many, at tip of new twigs. Staminate flower: calyx [0 or] lobes generally 4 [2, 6]; petals 0; stamens 3–40[50]; pistil 0 or vestigial. Pistillate flower: calyx [0] or lobes 4; petals 0; stamens 0; ovary 1, inferior, chamber 1 above, generally 2 below, styles 2, plumose. Fruit: nut enclosed in husk or winged nutlets.
9 genera, > 60 species: northern temperate, subtropical mountains; some ornamental, cultivated for wood, nuts (Carya hickory, pecan; Juglans walnut). [Stone 1997 FNANM 3:416–428] In Carya, Juglans, husk included in fruit diam, even though derived from involucre, calyx, and therefore not technically part of fruit. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Elias 1972 J Arnold Arbor 53: 26–51]

Key to Juglandaceae

JUGLANS WALNUT
Stem: bark smooth to furrowed in age, gray to gray-brown; twig centers chambered; buds scaly. Pistillate inflorescence: flowers 1–few; in fruit erect. Pistillate flower: styles elongate. Fruit: 1–3 unwinged nuts per inflorescence; leathery husk enclosing, not separating from each nut, not splitting.
21 species: North America, temperate Asia, South America. (Latin: Jove's nut) Wood used for interior finishing, furniture; source of nuts, dye. Juglans nigra L., occasionally planted, resembles Juglans hindsii but has leaflets uniformly pubescent abaxially, nuts deeply grooved, coarsely warty.

Key to Juglans

J. hindsii R.E. Sm. NORTHERN CALIFORNIA BLACK WALNUT
NATIVE
Stem: trunk 6–23 m. Leaf: petiole 3–8 cm; leaflets 13–21, (6)7–13 cm, narrow-triangular to -lanceolate, ± serrate, acuminate, abaxial vein axils with tufts of hairs. Fruit: 3.5–5 cm diam, nut shell thick, smooth to shallowly grooved.
Along streams, disturbed slopes; < 300 m. s Inner North Coast Ranges, s Sacramento Valley, n San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area; southwestern Oregon. [Juglans californica S. Watson var. hindsii Jeps.] Native to 3 sites, widely cultivated as rootstock for Juglans regia, escaping sporadically in Central Western California, Great Central Valley. Apr–May [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged note: Native to 3 sites, widely cultivated as rootstock for Juglans regia, escaping sporadically in Central Western California, Great Central Valley; some authorities contend that correct author citations are other than what is presented here (see ICPN). Expanded author citation: Juglans hindsii Jeps. ex R.E. Sm.

Previous taxon: Juglans californica
Next taxon: Juglans regia

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Juglans, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=29568, accessed on Dec 19 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Juglans hindsii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.