|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
[(Annual), shrub], perennial herb generally from [bulb], corm, or rhizome. Stem: generally erect, generally ± round in ×-section. Leaf: generally basal (few cauline), 2-ranked, ± sword-shaped, blade edge-wise to stem, with midvein or not; bases overlapped, sheathing. Inflorescence: generally ± terminal; spikes, umbel-like cymes, or flowers 1; flowers in spikes or 1 subtended by 2 subopposite flower bracts; umbel-like cymes enclosed by 2 subopposite, generally large, leaf-like inflorescence bracts, including various flower bracts. Flower: bisexual (unisexual), radial, with stamens erect, enclosing style, or bilateral, with stamens, style to 1 side, stamens not enclosing style; perianth radial, parts free or generally fused into tube above ovary, generally petal-like, in 2 series of 3, outer ± like inner (or not, in Iris, parts in that genus called sepals, petals), upper ± like lower or not; stamens 3, attached at base of outer 3 perianth parts or in tube, generally free; ovary inferior [(superior)], [(1)]3-chambered, placentas axile [(parietal)], style 1, branches 3, entire to 2-branched, thread- or petal-like with stigma abaxial, proximal to tip. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: few to many.
± 65 genera, ± 2050 species: worldwide, especially Africa; many cultivated (e.g., Crocus, Dietes, Freesia, Gladiolus, Iris, Sisyrinchium). [Goldblatt & Manning 2008 The Iris Family: Natural History and Classification. Timber Press] Gladiolus italicus Mill., Gladiolus tristis L. are urban weeds. Sparaxis grandiflora (D. Delaroche) Ker Gawl., Sparaxis tricolor (Schneev.) Ker Gawl. are waifs. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Iridaceae
Rhizome [bulbs, fleshy roots]. Leaf: 2-ranked in basal fan; cauline 0–few, reduced, often bract-like, without development of distal portion. Inflorescence: ± flat cyme, flowers 1–many. Flower: perianth parts ± clawed; sepals generally wider than petals, spreading or reflexed, occasionally with white area in basal 3/4, this generally with smaller yellow area; petals erect; stamens free [(not)]; ovary inferior, style branches petal-like [(not)], arched over stamens, each with scale-like flap (with stigmas on inner surface) opposite stamen and just below 2-lobed tip (crest), with sepals forming 3, 2-lipped units [(not)]. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, rounded or triangular, chambers 3. Seed: generally compressed, pitted, light to dark brown (red).Key to Iris
± 160 species: generally northern temperate. (Greek: rainbow, from flower colors) [Wilson 2003 Syst Bot 28:39–46] Hybrids between some sympatric species; Iris germanica only sp. in California with bearded sepals.
Unabridged references: [Lenz 1958 Aliso 4:1–72; Clarkson 1959 Madroño 15:115–122]
Rhizome 9–14 mm diam. Stem: generally branched, 25–40 cm. 2–4. Leaf: odor fetid when crushed; basal 25–35 mm wide; cauline 2–4, similar to basal especially near tip. Inflorescence: flowers 2–9; lowest 2 bracts opposite, enclosing perianth tube, outer 6–8 cm, 16–22 mm wide. Flower: perianth pale yellow to brown, red-brown, or green, veined green or red-brown, tube 11–14 mm, constricted near ovary; sepals 3–5 cm, 18–20 mm wide, obovate; petals 3–4 cm, 11–18 mm wide, narrowly obovate; ovary triangular, style branches 22–30 mm, crests 5–8 mm, stigmas 2-lobed. Seed: globular, generally red.
Damp areas in light shade; 300–1400 m. s Sacramento Valley (ranches only), San Francisco Bay Area; Europe, northern Africa, central Asia. Jun–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Iris fernaldii
Next taxon: Iris germanica
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Iris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=29193, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
See CalPhotos for additional images
Jo-Ann Ordano © 2000 California Academy of Sciences
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Iris foetidissima|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
View elevation by latitude chart
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month