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IRIDACEAE IRIS FAMILY

Peter Goldblatt, except as noted

[(Annual), shrub], perennial herb generally from [bulb], corm, or rhizome. Stem: generally erect, generally ± round in ×-section. Leaf: generally basal (few cauline), 2-ranked, ± sword-shaped, blade edge-wise to stem, with midvein or not; bases overlapped, sheathing. Inflorescence: generally ± terminal; spikes, umbel-like cymes, or flowers 1; flowers in spikes or 1 subtended by 2 subopposite flower bracts; umbel-like cymes enclosed by 2 subopposite, generally large, leaf-like inflorescence bracts, including various flower bracts. Flower: bisexual (unisexual), radial, with stamens erect, enclosing style, or bilateral, with stamens, style to 1 side, stamens not enclosing style; perianth radial, parts free or generally fused into tube above ovary, generally petal-like, in 2 series of 3, outer ± like inner (or not, in Iris, parts in that genus called sepals, petals), upper ± like lower or not; stamens 3, attached at base of outer 3 perianth parts or in tube, generally free; ovary inferior [(superior)], [(1)]3-chambered, placentas axile [(parietal)], style 1, branches 3, entire to 2-branched, thread- or petal-like with stigma abaxial, proximal to tip. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: few to many.
± 65 genera, ± 2050 species: worldwide, especially Africa; many cultivated (e.g., Crocus, Dietes, Freesia, Gladiolus, Iris, Sisyrinchium). [Goldblatt & Manning 2008 The Iris Family: Natural History and Classification. Timber Press] Gladiolus italicus Mill., Gladiolus tristis L. are urban weeds. Sparaxis grandiflora (D. Delaroche) Ker Gawl., Sparaxis tricolor (Schneev.) Ker Gawl. are waifs. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Iridaceae

IRIS IRIS

Carol A. Wilson

Rhizome [bulbs, fleshy roots]. Leaf: 2-ranked in basal fan; cauline 0–few, reduced, often bract-like, without development of distal portion. Inflorescence: ± flat cyme, flowers 1–many. Flower: perianth parts ± clawed; sepals generally wider than petals, spreading or reflexed, occasionally with white area in basal 3/4, this generally with smaller yellow area; petals erect; stamens free [(not)]; ovary inferior, style branches petal-like [(not)], arched over stamens, each with scale-like flap (with stigmas on inner surface) opposite stamen and just below 2-lobed tip (crest), with sepals forming 3, 2-lipped units [(not)]. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, rounded or triangular, chambers 3. Seed: generally compressed, pitted, light to dark brown (red).
± 160 species: generally northern temperate. (Greek: rainbow, from flower colors) [Wilson 2003 Syst Bot 28:39–46] Hybrids between some sympatric species; Iris germanica only sp. in California with bearded sepals.
Unabridged references: [Lenz 1958 Aliso 4:1–72; Clarkson 1959 Madroño 15:115–122]

Key to Iris

I. chrysophylla Howell YELLOW-FLOWERED IRIS
NATIVE
Rhizome 2–5 mm diam. Stem: unbranched, 1–12 cm. Leaf: basal 4–7 mm wide; cauline 0–4, similar to basal. Inflorescence: flowers 2; lowest 2 bracts opposite, enclosing perianth tube, 6–14 cm, generally < inner, 10–20 mm wide. Flower: perianth pale cream-yellow to ± white, with faint ± blue tinge or not, veined ± burgundy, tube 45–90 mm, narrow, abruptly funnel-shaped distally; sepals 4–8 cm, 14–20 mm wide, elliptic; petals 4–6 cm, 7–10 mm wide, narrowly elliptic; ovary triangular, style branches 35–60 mm, crests 15–25 mm, stigmas tongue-shaped, entire.
2n=40. Uncommon. Open conifer forest, roadbanks; 600–1000 m. Klamath Ranges (n Del Norte, nw Siskiyou cos.); western Oregon. May–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Iris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=29186, accessed on Nov 22 2014

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click for enlargement Iris chrysophylla
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© 2003 Dianne Fristrom

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Iris chrysophylla Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.