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Elizabeth McClintock

Shrub, tree, evergreen [deciduous]; dioecious or ± so. Leaf: generally alternate, simple, often spiny, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally axillary. Flower: generally unisexual, radial; sepals generally 4, generally fused at base; petals 4, fused at base [free], white [green]; stamens generally 4, generally alternate petals; ovary superior, chambers often 4, generally 1-ovuled, style 0 or terminal, short, stigma head-like or lobed. Fruit: drupe, generally red [purple to black or yellow to ± white]; stones generally 4.
4 genera, 300–400 species: tropics, temperate. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Hrusa et al. 2002 Madroño 49:61–98]

Leaf: petioled; adaxially generally shiny. Flower: sepals persistent in fruit; petals oblong or obovate. Fruit: pulpy.
300–400 species: especially tropics. (Latin: name for Medit holly-oak, Quercus ilex L.) [Zika 2010 Madroño 57:1–10] Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton occasionally persisting from cultivation.

I. aquifolium L. ENGLISH HOLLY
Shrub, tree, < 20 m. Stem: erect; branches many, branchlets minutely hairy. Leaf: 2.5–6 cm, ovate or oblong-ovate, entire to lobed, even on 1 plant, teeth 0 or widely spaced, stiff, spine-like. Flower: petals 2–3 mm, dull white. Fruit: 7–8 mm wide, smooth.
Cool, wooded areas; < 200 m. North Coast, Klamath Ranges?, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, expected elsewhere; native to Europe, western Asia. Cult since ancient time for showy fruit. May–Jun {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ilex, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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click for enlargement Ilex aquifolium
See CalPhotos for additional images
© 2005 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ilex aquifolium Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.